NHSC Demographics

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Contents

Demographics

A. INTRODUCTION

Profile of Hawaii 1/

The State of Hawaii consists of eight major southerly islands in a chain of islands and 124 minor islands with a total area of 6,450 square miles. Of this total, 6,425 miles are land and 25 are inland waters.

The eight major islands total 4,126,000 acres of land area, of which 98 percent form the six major islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, and Lanai (in order of largest land mass). The seventh island, Niihau, is privately owned and the eighth, Kahoolawe, is a military bombing range and uninhabitable.

There are three levels of government in Hawaii—Federal, State, and County. There are only four counties. The seat of the State Government is in the State Capitol at Honolulu on the island of Oahu, which houses the State Legislature and the Governor's offices.

The major industries in Hawaii have shifted from those that are primarily agricultural to service industries. In order of importance, the major industries today in Hawaii are:

  • Tourism
  • Construction
  • Sugar
  • Pineapple
  • Defense
  • Diversified Agriculture

Data Sources and Reliability 2/

The sources used in the descriptions that follow in this chapter are diverse, with varying degrees of reliability. Essentially two types of sources were used to compile the data in this chapter: scholarly demographic studies (for example, Adams, Lind, and Taeuber), and official government censuses and statistics (Schmitt for earlier figures, U.S. Bureau of the Census data, and State of Hawaii statistics).

As always in the use of statistics, there are inherent dangers of misclassification and misinterpretation. Earlier data are less reliable than later data. Some data collected by the Federal Government directly after statehood in 1959 are unusable because mainland race classifications are meaningless in Hawaii. Some data are not collected by ethnic groups by either the State or Federal Governments. It is hoped, however, that the wide variety of data used here will obviate some of these problems. Even where precise information is not available for lack of data, the reader may at least be able to discern trends in each of the areas discussed.

The most complete statistical compilation, from the earliest available figures to postcensal estimates made by the State in 1965, is contained in a book written by Robert C. Schmitt, Hawaii State Statistician. 3/ Schmitt reviews the various sources of demographic data for accuracy and reliability. A brief summary of his review will give a general idea of much of the data used here.

There are numerous problems with the earliest available data. Captain Cook's estimates and those of others

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for the original population count of Hawaiians in 1778 ranged from 100,000 to 500,000. 4_/ Estimates are almost completely missing from 1779 to 1822. The sociologist, Romanzo Adams, did much research to fill in this gap. Missionary estimates after 1823 are characterized by Adams as "not very accurate, but nevertheless, valuable." 5/ The first censuses in 1839, 1847, and 1848 were not successful. A moderately successful count was obtained in 1849, but 1850 is the date of the first acceptable population count.

Censuses were taken by the kingdom of Hawaii from 1847 to 1896. The last census, in 1896, was accurate and comprehensive. Problems with the kingdom's census data include the fact that age data were most frequently misreported and ethnic breakdowns were different from those used after annexation. However, Schmitt evaluates the kingdom's census data as follows:

Findings were usually consistent with what is known of the general social and economic conditions of the period. Notwithstanding their limitations, the censuses contributed greatly to knowledge of the demography of Hawaii. 6_/

From 1900 to 1980, U.S. Bureau of the Census data can be used. Here again problems occur, especially in the area of misclassification of race. Schmitt says of the U.S. Census data:

Although the errors and discrepancies cited...sometimes involve thousands of persons, their net effect is often insignificant in relation to the total population. For all their limitations, the U.S. census reports offer an unequaled statistical picture of the social, demographic and economic development of Hawaii since 1900. V

There are important considerations that must be taken into account in using U.S. Census data and the statistics compiled by the State of Hawaii. For the 1980 U.S. Census, "race" was assigned on the basis of self-identification. If the person was unsure of his/her race, the race of the mother was used (in 1970, race of the father was used). In gathering State of Hawaii statistics, respondents are asked their ethnic composition and those with mixed blood, including part-Hawaiian, are included in the latter category. Exacerbating this difference is the fact that in 1970 and 1980, the category "part-Hawaiian" was not used in the U.S. Census. Many part- Hawaiians may have believed that the "Hawaiian" category was only for those with a large percentage of Hawaiian blood.V S

The natural result of the differences in these methods is that the State of Hawaii counts many more native Hawaiians than the U.S. Census does and, therefore, State and U.S. Census figures cannot be accurately compared. The actual effects of these differences are a matter of debate that cannot be resolved at this time. However, the reader should at least be aware that this issue exists. In this Report, the origin of the statistics used is clearly identified in the text or in each table.

Definitions

The definition used by the U.S. Congress for the term "native Hawaiian" in the Act creating the Native Hawaiians Study Commission is as follows: "any individual whose

V1 For a more complete explanation of the differences in the data collection for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, see page 41, below.

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ancestors were natives of the area which consisted of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778." 8/ Confusion arises, particularly in an historical overview, between full-Hawaiians, part-Hawaiians, and Hawaiians of 50 percent blood quantum of the races inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778 (the definition for inclusion in the Hawaiian Home Lands program).

For the purposes of this Report, the Commission has decided that the following definitions will always apply, 9/ unless otherwise noted in the text:

Hawaiian or full-Hawaiian: Pureblooded Hawaiian;
Part-Hawaiian: Any individual of mixed blood whose ancestors were natives of Hawaii prior to 1778;
Native Hawaiian(s): ^J Either full- or part-Hawaiian; in the plural, the combination of both groups as defined above*

Historical Background **/

The period after the arrival of Captain Cook, from 1778 to 1850, was one of sweeping changes in the Hawaiian Islands. The native population declined drastically as result of declining birth rates and high mortality rates. Urban centers grew up around Honolulu, Hilo, and Lahaina as trade with foreigners increased. Native Hawaiian men signed up as sailors on foreign ships, never to return. Foreigners began to take up residence on the islands, and the first indentured laborers arrived.

The changes from 1850 to 1900 were no less drastic. The population decline of the islands as a whole was arrested and began a rapid increase, swelled by thousands of immigrant laborers. The composition of the population (age, sex, race, marital status) was dramatically altered, however, as the native population continued its decline. Constitutional government was introduced, and the system of land ownership was changed. By the end of this period, the monarchy did not even exist, replaced in 1894 by a caretaker Republic awaiting annexation to the United States.

The period from 1900 to 1960 covers Hawaii's territorial years. The full-Hawaiian population continued its decline, while there was a dramatic increase in the part-Hawaiian population as inter-marriage among Hawaii's ethnic groups increased. Large numbers of immigrant laborers continued to enter Hawaii in the first half of the period. The second half saw a great increase in the number of U.S. military personnel. From 1960 to 1980, the change from an agricultural economy to a service economy is clearly evident. The native Hawaiian population continued to increase, and a Hawaiian "cultural revival" began.

V When discussing the beneficiaries of the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act, however, "native Hawaiian" refers to those descendants of not less than one-half-part blood of the races that inhabited the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778.


**/ For a more complete history, see Part I, "Ancient History to the Reciprocity Treaty," and Part II, "Diplomatic and Congressional History: From Monarchy to Statehood."

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B. POPULATION AND COMPOSITION OF POPULATION

Population Trends from 1778 to 1850

It is probable that Hawaii was first inhabited by "a few hundred" Polynesians who arrived in large, doubled-hulled canoes. From this modest beginning, the native Hawaiian population was estimated to be between 100,000 and 500,000 people at the time of first Western contact in 1778. The population figure that has come to be accepted by most authors is 300,000. Captain Cook found an island grouping fully populated, based on a subsistence economy with a strict hierarchical social system, and kings on various islands in almost constant warfare with each other.

Contact with foreigners after centuries of isolation from the rest of the world greatly changed the islands and their people. The total population of Hawaii for the period from 1778 to 1850 declined dramatically, from approximately 300,000 in 1778 to 84,000 in 1850. Table 1 and Chart 1 illustrate this decline. _V The major causes of the decline are examined in the next section.

Causes of Population Decline **/

Population growth or decline is the net result of four forces: birth, death, in- and out-migration. Until the first immigrants arrived in 1852, the natural decrease outweighed migration in determining the demographic make-up of Hawaii.

Epidemics and Diseases: When British Captain James Cook anchored off the island of Kauai on January 18, 1778, his rediscovery ended the prolonged isolation of the Hawaiian Islands. This lack of contact had left the native population with no built-up immunities and virtually defenseless to disease. Unlike continental peoples, the vast oceanic distances among the Pacific island groups had effectively prevented the spread of any bacterial or viral illnesses anywhere in Polynesia. As a result, Western contact in Polynesia meant the introduction of diseases that proved to be devastating to the island population. The first to be introduced in Hawaii was venereal disease.

The physical mobility among the islands and the accepted sexual behavior of native Hawaiians had assured the spread of the disease. (Although syphilis is not an immediate threat to the size of a population, its effects on the incidence and health of children born to parents carrying the disease very often include deformity or early death.) It was also the custom of native Hawaiians not to permit deformed children to survive birth. This practice of native infanticide was reported by Westerners for the next 50 years, but the exact number of such deaths will never be known.

Hawaii State Statistician Robert C. Schmitt wrote that:

...the roles of abortion, infanticide,
and infant mortality are
difficult to assess. Artemas
Bishop, writing in 1838, noted
that "the great majority of the
children born in the islands die
before they are two years old."
Some students attributed the
frequent barrenness, stillbirths,
and infant deaths to venereal
disease. Abortion and
infanticide, known to have existed
in pre-contact times, reached new
highs in 1819-1825 and 1832-
1836... 10/

^J All tables and charts appear at the end of the chapter.

**/ For more data on the historical development of native Hawaiian health, see below, pages 99 to 109.

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These dates indicate generational patterns, suggesting that the impact of venereal disease continued for at least three generations before it abated or became a leas virulent strain.

The lack o£ any natural immunity to Western diseases aiaong trie native Hawaiians was far more ca amatically traceable with the introduction of air- or water-borne contagion. The first recorded epidemic occurred in 1804. From native accounts of the symptoms, it is now assumed that outbreaks of either cholera or bubonic plague occurred. Of an estimated population of 280,000 in the year before this epidemic, nearly half succumbed.

Later epidemics also contributed to the high mortality rate: influenza "irst appeared in 1826, and measles, "hooping cough, diarrnea, and nfluenza struck in rapid succession n 1848 and 1849.

Other causes mentioned by authors for the declining population are:

  • Limited knowledge of treatment for certain diseases, poor infant care, breakdown of the old moral order, and disruption of important economic activities; 11/
  • Inter-island warfare that did not abate until 1795 and infanticide, mostly of females, to balance the loss of males in war; and
  • The sandalwood trace, which caused innumerable natives to work gathering sandalwood, weakened them, and caused them to neglect other economic pursuits, such as fishing and farming. 12/

Migration: although it was not a [major cause of: population decline, the migration of young Hawaiian men did play a role. The recruitment of native tiawaiians as'crew members for visiting ships evidently began in 1788. Romanzo Adams estimated that the number of island seamen increased from 200 in 1823 to 300 in 1825, 400 in 1832, 600 in 1836, 3,500 in 1848, and 4,000 in 1850. At mid-century, then, nearly 5 percent of the total Hawaiian population had enlisted as sailors. More importantly, this group accounted for approximately 12 percent of all Hawaiian males 18 years of age or older. 13/

Population Trends from 1850 to 1896

According to the census data of the kingdom, this period witnessed the reversal of the decline in the overall population of Hawaii. While there was a 3.5 percent per year population decline in 1853, the population in 1896 was increasing at a rate of 3.3 percent per year (see Table 2).

However, far-reaching changes were occurring in the lifestyle and composition of the population, as the native population continued its decline. Central to this transformation was the importation of laborers, beginning in 1852, to work the newly-established sugar plantations. The effects of the plantation system are evident in the increase of non-Hawaiians, a considerable excess of males over females, and a youthful population.

Immigration

Although there was a sufficient number of Hawaiians to meet the labor needs of the plantations, the native cultural pattern of subsistence living was not conducive to plantation labor. As Lind concluded, since Hawaiians could satisfy their simple living expectations by a few hours toil in the taro patches, "there was little reason for the Hawaiians to offer themselves as plantation laborers under the onerous and confining conditions which prevailed—long hours of hard labor under driving rain and hot tropical sun..." 14/

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The first immigrant labor group to arrive was the Chinese, followed by Japanese and, eventually, others. This new infusion of population from China and Japan brought with it new diseases. The first outbreak of leprosy occurred as a result. (Hawaiians called the disease ma'i Pake--the Chinese sickness.) The kingdom of Hawaii responded with quarantine stations to examine all incoming workers. However, the dread disease had established itself within the population, and, in an attempt to contain its spread, the leper settlement at Kalaupapa on the island of Molokai was established.

In any event, the greater consequence of labor immigration was the change in the composition of the total population. By 1896, full- Hawaiians represented less than half of the total population for the first time. Within a decade, this change was even more pronounced, as the Hawaiian population was less than one-third the number of non-natives, as shown in Chart 2.

As Chart 3 shows, most conspicuous in this non-native population were Asian immigrants, primarily from China and Japan. Especially after favorable arrangements for Hawaiian sugar were established with the United States in the Reciprocity Treaty of 1876, this portion of the population increased even more.

The influx of immigrant population— largely adult males—created an imbalance in the male/female ratio. Only Portugal required the re-settlement of wives and children as a condition of labor contracts. Although later efforts were made by the nation of Japan to facilitate "picture bride" arrangements for their people, plantations continued to assime that workers would return to their native countries. However, as might be expected in such a situation, patterns of increasing inter-marriage began to emerge.

Although intimate contact is known to have occurred between Hawaiians and Westerners since 1778, it was not until the Census of 1850 that a separate category designated "half caste" began to enumerate the children of these unions. In that year, more than 500 hapa haole children were counted. Three years later, this number had doubled. By 1890, this change in the genetic background of native Hawaiians accounted for about 15 percent of the total native Hawaiian population, as shown in Table 3.

Population Trends from 1900 to 1960

With the emergence of a new group composed of full- and part-Hawaiians (see Table 4 ) , there was a significant reversal in the declining native Hawaiian population trend in the first half of the twentieth century. Major factors that accounted for this population increase were: establishment of a program of Western preventive medicine and Hawaiians learning the value of Western medicine and changing their mode of life accordingly; the build-up of some immunity to disease; and growing inter-marriage. Part-Hawaiians have become Hawaii's most rapidly expanding ethnic group. 15/

Age and sex pyramids for the native Hawaiian population (illustrated in Chart 4) nearly approximate a normal distribution. The base is decidedly broad in 1920 and even broader in 1960; the broader the base, the younger the population. The median age of 16.0 for native Hawaiian males in 1960 was lower than that of any other major ethnic group in Hawaii.

Population Trends from 1960 to 1980

Federal and State figures vary substantially on the population of Hawaii in 1980. Table 5 shows the U.S. Census Bureau tally for Hawaii in

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1970 and 1980. The 1970 total for native Hawaiians of 71,375, seems disproportionately low, given the combined (Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian) total of 102,403 in 1960 (revised estimate) and 115,962 in 1980. This discrepancy is probably due to the differences in the methods of data collection that were employed in the 1370 census for Hawaii. */ In spite of this anomaly, the trend of an increasing native Hawaiian population is continuing. The 1970 census shows that 9.3 percent of Hawaii's population was native Hawaiian. The comparable figure for 1980 was 12.0 percent.

Population statistics from the State of Hawaii Data Book for 1981 vary widely from the U.S. Census information (see Table 6 ) . In the State's tabulation, full- and part- Hawaiians comprise 18.9 percent of the total Hawaii population with a total of 175,453 persons, compared to the 12 percent (or 115,962) figure from the 1980 U.S. Census.

The differences are due largely to the definitions used in collecting the data (see above, page 36). That is, persons of mixed race are shown separately in the State table, while in the 1980 Census tabulations they are assigned to one of the unmixed groups on the basis of self-identification or race of the mother. In the 1970 U.S. Census, self-identification or the race of the father was used in ethnic classifications.

Age/sex statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau for 1970 confirm previous figures showing that many native Hawaiians are in the younger age brackets. The median age for males was 19.7 (higher than the 1960 figure of 16) and 21.8 for females. Over 48 percent of the native Hawaiian population in 1970 was 19 years old or younger.

Data from the 1980 Census shows that native Hawaiians continue to be the youngest ethnic group in the State. Table 7 displays median ages for Hawaii's major ethnic groups. For native Hawaiians, the median age for males was 22.0 (compared to 27.6 for all races) and 23.2 for females (compared to 29.1 for all races).

The ratio between males and females continues to display the trend shown in the pyramid charts discussed on the preceding page. Of the total native Hawaiian population between the ages of 20 and 39, 53 percent are female and 4 7 percent are male. In the 1980 Census, 49.5 percent of ail native Hawaiians were male and 50.5 percent were female.


*/ According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Subject Report, Japanese, Chinese and Filipinos in the United States, PC (2)-IG, p. XI: "Racial statistics for Hawaii are not strictly comparable with those from earlier censuses for several reasons, including the elimination of the racial category 'part Hawaiian' and changes in the rules on racial classification for persons with racially mixed parentage. In 1960, 'part Hawaiian' was included as a separate category in the race item. Mixtures of Hawaiian and any other race were classified as 'part Hawaiian.' In 1960, 91,109 persons, or 14 percent of the total population of Hawaii, were included in this category. In the 1970 census, persons of mixed descent were asked to enter the race with which they identified themselves. When persons were in doubt about their racial classification, the father's race was used."

On the other hand, persons were asked in the 1980 census to report the race with which they most clearly identified. In Hawaii, persons who reported "Part Hawaiian" were classified as "Hawaiian." Persons reporting more than one race were asked to report the one with which they most closely identified. Finally, in those cases where the respondent could not report one race, the race of the mother was used.

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Summary

After the arrival of foreigners, the native population of the Hawaiian Islands began a drastic decline. The major causes of this depopulation were epidemics and disease. The population of the Hawaiian Kingdom as a whole began to increase in the second half of the nineteenth century, largely through the importation of immigrant laborers to work in Hawaii's sugar fields. The result of this immigration, along with the continuing decline of the native Hawaiian population, was a decrease in the proportion of native Hawaiians in the total population. By the end of the century, native Hawaiians accounted for less than one-third of Hawaii's total population.

The part-Hawaiian population began to increase dramatically after the turn of the century. The primary reasons for this were better health and increased inter-marriage with other racial groups. Today, the native Hawaiian population of Hawaii can be characterized as follows:

  • According to the State of Hawaii, there are 9,366 full-Hawaiians and 166,087 part-Hawaiians, constituting about19 percent of the State's population;
  • Native Hawaiians are a young population—in 1980, the median age for males was 22.0, and the median age for females was 23.2; and
  • The male/female ratio for native Hawaiians is fairly equal—in 1980 males accounted for 49.5 percent of the native Hawaiian population, and females accounted for 50.5 percent.


C. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

Prior to the arrival of foreigners, the geographic distribution of the native population among the eight major islands of Hawaii was a direct consequence of the ability of the land area to sustain necessary crops and fish. Estimates at the time of contact placed the greatest native numbers on the island of Hawaii, followed by Maui, and then Oahu. (Not coincidentally, this ordering is also indicative of the physical area of each island.)

Pre-contact settlement was organized within the ahupua'a:

. . . the basic landholding unit was the ahupua'a, which ranged in size from 100 to 100,000 acres and usually had natural boundaries. The ideal ahupua'a was an economically self-sufficient pieshaped unit which ran from mountain tops down ridges to the sea. Most ahupua'a were in turn divided into ili, some of which were virtually independent while others were mere operating subdivisions of the ahupua'a. A hierarchical society paralleled this pattern of land division. At the top, a chief controlled each ahupua'a; land agents (konohiki) and subchiefs subordinate to the chief controlled smaller amounts of land; and at the bottom of the hierarchy, common farmers worked the land for the benefit of the chief. Commoners had other plots for their own use and had certain gathering rights in the noncultivated lands of the ahupua'a. . . . 16/

1778 to 1850

During the period from 1778 to 1851, each of the islands experienced a decrease in population roughly

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equivalent to the general population decline caused by death. Movement from the strictly rural settings of the traditional lifestyle, however, occurred as a response to early commercial activities around port areas. In particular, Lahaina on Maui and Honolulu on Oahu began to acquire urban dimensions (see Table 8 ).

The sandalwood trade contributed to this early drift to the port areas. As the first export item of the islands, individual chiefs redirected the activities of the people within their ahupua'a to the gathering of the fragrant wood. King Kamehameha I became aware that the country was in danger of severe famine because of the neglect of farming and fishing as a result of this redirection. As a consequence, he ordered chiefs and people to devote more time to other activities, proclaimed all sandalwood to be the property of the government, and prohibited the cutting of young and small trees to conserve this natural resource. 17/ Liloliho, who succeeded Kamehameha I as king, lifted these restrictions and commoners again were required to gather the fragrant wood in great quantities. 18/ This activity, according to many authors, resulted in the practical extinction of sandalwood trees, weakened the commoners, and contributed to the decline of the native population. 19/

1850 to 1900

The trend of population decline on all islands was reversed after the Reciprocity Treaty of 1876 between the kingdom of Hawaii and the United States. As a consequence of the expanding plantation economy, population on all of the Hawaiian Islands increased rapidly, particularly from 1880 to 1930. (See Table 9 for population figures for the period from 1850 to 1896, and Table 10 for the period from 1900 to 1930.)

1900 to 1960

With the passing of the peak of plantation domination, there was a decline in population on all islands except Oahu between 1930 and 1960 (see Table 10). The expansion of the tourist industry brought slight increases on Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. By 1960, more than 79 percent of Hawaii's residents were located on Oahu, which has less than 10 percent of the total land area. Over 4 5 percent of the residents of the State lived in the city of Honolulu and the adjacent urbanized area.

Population decline on islands other than Oahu was due not only to movement toward Honolulu, but also to migration from Hawaii to the mainland. The ethnic group with the highest rate of net migration (whether within Hawaii or from Hawaii to the mainland) was the part-Hawaiian group. 20/ There was also a large out-rrigration of the original contract laborers and their descendants. 21/

Geographic Distribution of Native Hawaiians */

As one would expect, Hawaiian culture and population have persisted most effectively in areas where Western civilization has penetrated least. Thus census reports from 1853 to 1960 reveal that the islands and districts least suitable for plantation agriculture or other Western uses have remained the havens for native Hawaiians...22/ In 1853, large numbers of foreigners settled on Oahu and Kauai,

*/ This section is taken, with some paraphrasing, from Andrew w. Lind, Hawaii's People, 3rd ed. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1967), pages 45-49.

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but both islands also had their isolated districts where native culture was able to survive to a considerable degree. The expansion of plantations during the last half of the nineteenth century reduced the area within which native Hawaiians could maintain numerical and cultural dominance. The lonely islands of Niihau, Lanai, and Molokai remained relatively free of foreign influence until after annexation. By 1930, there were 17 remote districts in which native Hawaiians constituted more than 50 percent of the population.

The situation had not changed substantially by 1950, as reflected in the census reports. Although the 1960 census did not provide similar data (except for Oahu), a clearly disproportionate ratio of native Hawaiians in all of the larger census divisions where they appear indicates that the rural native havens still remained. The centers of native Hawaiian concentration were still in the underdeveloped areas of Kohalo and Kona on the island of Hawaii, of Hana on Maui, of Koolauloa on Oahu, parts of Molokai, and Niihau. However,

More important in the total experience of the natives than the survival of a few thousand persons in these isolated pockets on the edges of the expanding Western world has been the gradual absorption of the Hawaiians in that expanding world. Each new census has told the story of a larger proportion of the natives who have been drawn within the orbit of the commercial economy centering in the port towns and cities. 23/

Honolulu emerged as the dominant center. As the century advanced, Honolulu drew a higher proportion of the total native Hawaiian population. Between 1853 and 190 0 the proportion of pure Hawaiians increased from 14.5 percent to 28.1 percent. In 1950, slightly more than 40 percent of the surviving 12,000 "pure" Hawaiians lived in Honolulu.

Part-Hawaiians have been even more strikingly products of the city, as they continue to constitute a greater proportion of residents in Honolulu than is true for the total population. The 1960 census seemed to show a curious reversal of this trend, since the proportion of both full-and part-Hawaiians resident in Honolulu dropped from the 1950 total. On the other hand, the proportion of both groups resident on the island of Oahu had continued to increase steadily until 1960, which suggests that the attraction of the city still operated, but that there was a preference for the suburban and peripheral areas outside the city proper.

Paradoxically, the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act had the effect of assisting this urban trend. The demand for urban sites, particularly on Oahu, far outweighs that for agricultural sites.

1960 to 1980

Information received from the U.S. Department of Labor confirms that the majority of native Hawaiians, like the majority of all Hawaii residents, lives on the island of Oahu (see Table11). Seventy percent of the native Hawaiian population of the six largest islands lives on Oahu, compared with 79 percent for the population as a whole. Besides Niihau (whose population is almost totally native Hawaiian), the island of Molokai has the largest native Hawaiian population, which constitutes 57.3 percent of its total.

Summary

Prior to the contact with Westerners that was to change their lifestyle, the Hawaiian population

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was distributed among the islands in proportion to the land mass and available food resources. The increase in trade after the arrival of foreigners upset this balance and caused a movement toward port areas. This trend has continued with the general movement of the population toward Oahu in the middle of the twentieth century. Recent years have witnessed an even greater concentration of Hawaii's population in and around Honolulu, the principal commercial and tourist center. Although there are many pockets of native Hawaiians located in economically deprived rural areas on many islands, the native Hawaiians have not been immune to the drift of the overall population toward Oahu and Honolulu, and the majority of them now live there.

D. EDUCATION

Education in pre-contact Hawaii was a formalized learning process according to social rank and function. Because there was no written language, all knowledge was carried and transmitted from generation to generation by practice, ritual, and memorization. Training in professions, such as canoe-building and fishing, was accomplished in this same manner. Similar practices were used to train the ali'i in the religious and chiefly arts to ensure their competency to rule. This system served the Hawaiians well as they developed "the finest navigators, agriculturalists, and fishermen in the Pacific" and their culture flourished for over 1,500 years. 24/

Missionaries

A written form of the Hawaiian language and Western modes of learning were first introduced in Hawaii by American missionaries after their arrival in 1820. Reflecting the Protestant emphasis on knowing and understanding the Bible, proselytizing efforts were combined with teaching the rudiments of reading and writing. The missionaries began by teaching the ali'i, whose attitude seems to have been: "Teach us first and we will see if it is good. If it is, you may teach the people." 25/ The natives enthusiastically embraced the instruction offered by the missionaries after the chiefs agreed that schools should be set up for the maka'ainana, or common people. By 1831, the schools for commoners numbered 1,000 with a total enrollment of 52,000, or approximately two-fifths of the population. The preponderance of these students were adults. 26/ However, concerted attention was beginning to be given to instructing children by the end of 1820's and by the end of the 1830's, the majority of pupils in the schools were children, in numbers as high as 12,000 or 15,000. 27/

Kingdom Education System

In 1840, the kingdom of Hawaii took over the support of the schools, using the missionary schools as the nucleus of the new public school system. In that same year, literacy became a requirement for obtaining a marriage license. By 1896, 84 percent of the Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians over the age of ten were considered literate— able to read and write in either Hawaiian or English. This percentage continued to improve through 1930 (see Table 12). 28/

Territory

Lind notes that the response to opportunities for formal education reflects interests and aspirations of the individual groups, especially insofar as the values of the

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educational system are American and Western. A sensitive indicator of the differences in attitudes towards formal education in general, and American education in particular, is the proportion of children just beyond compulsory school age who are attending school. Especially in the earlier decades of the century, because the Territory's compulsory school age was 15, school attendance on the part of children aged 16 or 17 was "chiefly a reflection of a strong educational urge on the part of the young people themselves and especially on their parents." 29/ (The present mandatory school age in Hawaii is 18. ) In this regard, Table 13 contrasts the native and immigrant populations. In 1950, 78.1 percent of native Hawaiian 16- and 17-year olds were attending school, compared to 94.1 percent for Japanese and Chinese youths of the same age. It has been suggested that this does not mean that native Hawaiians did not value education, but rather reflects a disenchantment with "Western education." 30/

In terms of higher education, the 1950 census showed that 8.8 percent of Chinese who were 2 5 years or older had completed a college education. This compared with 3 percent for Japanese, 2.4 percent for native Hawaiians, and 0.3 percent for Filipinos.

1970 to 1980

The 1970 Census shows some improvement for native Hawaiians over the territorial attendance figures. However, native Hawaiians still lag behind other ethnic groups in key areas (see Table 14). The percentage of native Hawaiian 14- to 17-year olds who are in school is lower than that for any other group. Native Hawaiians were behind all ethnic groups, except Filipinos, in: median years of high school completed by those over 25 (12.0, compared with a State average of 12.3 and a total U.S. average of 12.1) V; and percent of those 2 5 years old and over who are high school graduates. Over 50 percent of native Hawaiians age 2 5 and over had not graduated from high school. More recent data (for 1977) show that 46.9 percent had completed high school. 31/

The Chinese, White and native Hawaiian groups had the highest percentage of students enrolled in private schools. In 1970, 10.8 percent of native Hawaiian children attending elementary school were enrolled in private schools. The corresponding figure for high schools was 14.4 percent. Thus, the overwhelming majority of native Hawaiian children attend public schools. 32/

The deficiencies in the area of higher education are particularly striking. The native Hawaiian group lags behind all groups in the percent of the population over 2 5 who have completed 4 or more years of college: only 4.2 percent of the native Hawaiian group completed 4 or more years in college. The statewide average is 14.0 percent and the Whites had the highest percentage of 21.5 percent. The 1977 data of the Hawaii Health Surveillance Program show that 4.6 percent of native Hawaiians completed college, compared to 16.8 percent of Caucasians (the highest) and 7.6 percent for Filipinos. 33/

A 1976 report by Alu Like, Inc. provides further information on the educational profile of native Hawaiians. Among the report's findings are:

  • Of the 224 public schools, 34 (15 percent) had enrollments that were 40 percent or more native Hawaiian.

*/ The low figure for Filipinos, 8.7 percent, is probably due to the fact that this group was the last immigrant group to arrive in Hawaii, and many older Filipinos have received little or no formal education.

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  • Of the 5,000 students in those intermediate/high schools, 33 percent had been absent 20 days or more a year.
  • Of the 20,000 native Hawaiian youngsters aged 12 to 17, 10 percent were not enrolled in any school.
  • Of the 34,000 native Hawaiian students in public schools, approximately 12,900 (35 to 38 percent) were in the lower stanines (1-3) for SAT reading, compared with 24 percent for the State.
  • Of the approximately 72,000 native Hawaiians age 25 and older, 31 percent had not finished high school (this is an improvement over the 1970 Census figure of 50.3 percent). 34/

Given these problems, it is not surprising that "educational needs are in [the] top priority for programs according to the Hawaiian population." 35/ The 1976 Alu Like Needs Assessment Survey sample that voiced this priority also indicated that parents have high aspirations for their children and feel it is important for them to finish high school. 36/ These parents also believed that schools are:

. . . not sensitive to the needs of children with a culturally Hawaiian life-style, and that Hawaiian children are in need of head-start preparation for the public schools as a way of integrating their cultural orientation with that of the vastly different orientation in the public elementary schools they will attend. 37/

Summary

Formal education in Hawaii, as it was known in the United States, 38/ began with the arrival of the missionaries in 1820. The native Hawaiians enthusiastically embraced learning to read and write. By the end of the nineteenth century, the vast majority of native Hawaiians were literate (in Hawaiian or English).

During the territorial years, however, a low attendance rate for children beyond the compulsory school age can be seen. This is probably due to the attitudes of children, and especially their parents, toward American education. In contrast, a 1976 Alu Like Needs Assessment survey indicated that education for their children was a top priority for native Hawaiian parents.

Despite these aspirations, educational problems still exist. According to the 1970 U.S. Census, native Hawaiians have the following characteristics with regard to education:

  • The percentage of native Hawaiian children between the ages of 14 and 17 who are enrolled in school is lower than that for any other group in Hawaii (91.6 percent for females and 90.7 percent for males, compared to an overall State figure of 94.8 percent);
  • The median number of years of school completed by native Hawaiians over 2 5 years of age was 12.0, compared to a State median of 12.3;
  • Only 49.7 percent of native Hawaiians over 25 have graduated from high school (State data show that this figure was even less in 1977—46.9 percent); and
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  • Only 4.2 percent of native Hawaiians over 25 have completed 4 or more years of college, a figure lower than that for any of the immigrant groups. (The 1977 figure is 4.6 percent; still lower than any other ethnic group.)

E. EMPLOYMENT

1778 to 1850

Early censuses tell us little about the changing modes of earning a living that were brought on by the introduction of trade during the first half of the nineteenth century. Lind notes that "an increasing number of the Islanders were living on the margins of the two competing economies, deriving most of their livelihood from the cultivation of their own kuleana but also earning some money for the purchase of trade goods from the sale of farm surplus or from an occasional day of work with the government." 39/

1850 to 1900

The census of 1866 collected occupation data for the first time. Although it may not be accurate, Lind notes that it provides a rough indication and, when taken with other census data, "suggests that well over half of the natives were still living under a predominantly subsistence economy." 40/

By 1896 the sugar plantations had emerged as the major factor in the Hawaiian economy. It appears likely that well over 90 percent of the gainfully- employed were engaged in occupations associated with plantations or in other fields in commerce and trade. Nearly two-thirds of a ll employed persons were unskilled laborers. 41/ (See Table 15 for occupation data for the years 1866 through 1896.)

Reliance of plantations on immigrant labor became necessary when the sugar industry began to expand rapidly, especially in the 1870's. Until then, one writer states:

Contrary to many reports, native Hawaiians did not leave the field work. As late as 1869, several plantations employed all native Hawaiian labor. By 1870, while the native population was declining, there was a tremendous expansion of sugar production from two million to 20 million pounds annually. The demand for increased production and labor had to come from outside the kingdom. This fact is demonstrated by a report in 1873; on the thirty-five plantations in existence at the time there were 3,786 employees.

Of this there were 2,627 men and 364 women who were native Hawaiians. This shows that more than 80% of the labor force was native Hawaiian up to that time. 42/

However, even after the importation of immigrant laborers for plantations began in earnest, native Hawaiians continued to play a minor but important role as luna (supervisors) and skilled workers. 43/

1900 to 1960

This period saw a marked decline in the number of plantation/agricultural workers, especially since 1930. In the 1940's, one can see the important influence of the war in terms of both new employment opportunities and numbers of military personnel. Expansion of the tourist industry brought further opportunities.

Throughout the entire period since 1896, part-Hawaiians have been much less represented in the ranks of unskilled labor than full-Hawaiians. It was not until 1950, however, that full-Hawaiians were significantly over-represented in this area. 44/

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Advancement in the professions is one of the "most sensitive gauges of advancing prestige on the part of the several ethnic groups." 45/ The advantage that those in the haole group enjoyed is evident in Table 16. The advantage that native Hawaiians, especially part-Hawaiians, enjoyed in the professions during earlier census periods largely disappeared before 1940. In 1930, there were more judges, lawyers and teachers in Honolulu who were Hawaiian and part- Hawaiian than any other group. Yet, the vast majority of native Hawaiians in Honolulu had lesser occupational roles. 46/ Chinese, on the other hand, greatly increased their representation in the professions from 1930. 47/

Native Hawaiians have always been less than proportionally represented in occupations of commerce, although part-Hawaiians have apparently made a better adjustment than pure Hawaiians. One reason for this may be that important elements in the native Hawaiian culture hampered success in business on the part of Hawaiians. Noted Hawaiian sociologist Romanzo Adams speculated on the causes of the situation in the 1930's:

...the old Hawaiians had no commerce and probably not even barter...The introduction of profit seeking trade by foreigners brought from the outside world certain commodities that the Hawaiians greatly desired and hence they, under the tutelage of foreigners, did gradually enter upon a commercial economy. But, so far [i.e., 1937], they have not brought their mores into full harmony with such an economy...To an old-fashion Hawaiian, the practices of the hard-boiled business man are immoral. One would be ashamed to drive a hard bargain based on another man's necessity...48/

This gap is gradually diminishing among ethnic groups, as Table 17 illustrates. Native Hawaiians, especially those of mixed ancestry, revealed special aptitude as craftsmen, including the operation and handling of machinery. 49/

1960 to 1980

Employment levels and types are closely related to educational levels. The educational problems noted above presage the employment picture for native Hawaiians. According to the 1970 U.S. Census, 4.3 percent of native Hawaiian men and 5.2 percent of native Hawaiian women in the civilian labor force were unemployed in 1970 (see Table 18). These figures compare with 2.6 percent for men and 3.7 percent for women for the State of Hawaii overall. The unemployment rate for native Hawaiian men was also higher than the average U.S. rate. The comparable figures for the United States as a whole were 3.9 percent and 5.2 percent for men and women, respectively. 50/

The unemployment rate for native Hawaiian males was significantly higher than that for the Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, and White groups. Japanese men had the lowest unemployment rate at 1.4 percent. Native Hawaiian women also had a higher unemployment rate than other ethnic groups, except for the White group.

The percent of native Hawaiian males in the labor force, 76.4 percent, was similar to that for the Chinese, Filipinos, and the average, U.S. rate. It was lower than the percentage for the State as a whole, 81.5 percent, for Japanese, 79.7 percent, and for Whites, 86 percent. However, it should be noted that almost 45 percent of the White male labor force was in the armed forces.

The unemployment picture for native Hawaiians in 1975 is shown in Table 19, based on data from the 1975 Census

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Update Survey by the Office of Economic Opportunity. The unemployment rate for both males and females for the six major islands was estimated at 11.6 percent, ccmpared to 6.5 percent for the State as a whole. More recently, U.S. Department of Labor correspondence with the State indicates that the present rate is probably higher than the 1975 level, while the overall unemployment rate in Hawaii has dropped to 5.9 percent. 51/

Data for 1975 on the distribution of men in the occupational structure of Hawaii show that native Hawaiians still lag behind other ethnic groups in the percentage of their population with professional/managerial positions. Only 17.8 percent of native Hawaiians are classified as "professional-technical, managerial," compared to 33.6 percent for Caucasians, 34.3 percent for Japanese, and 50.4 percent for Chinese. On the other hand, 53.6 percent of native Hawaiians have occupations classified as "blue collar," while 42 percent of Caucasians, 4 2.2 percent of Japanese, and 21.2 percent of Chinese have blue collar jobs. Filipinos and Portuguese fare even worse than native Hawaiians: 16 percent of Filipinos and 17.7 percent of Portuguese are classified as professional, while 55.4 percent of Filipinos and 58.1 percent of Portuguese have blue collar jobs. Over 2 2 percent of native Hawaiian men have jobs in the "menial" occupational category, a higher percentage than that of any of the other five ethnic groups studied. 52/

Summary

In ancient Hawaii, the inhabitants lived in a subsistence economy, farming and fishing for just enough to satisfy their needs. The coming of the white man changed this situation and a market economy grew up alongside the natives' subsistence one.

When trading declined and largescale agriculture took over, the economy changed again. The decline in the native population and the lack of interest on the part of the natives in toiling in the fields made the importation of immigrant laborers necessary. Many native Hawaiians continued to work as supervisors for the plantations, however.

In the early part of the twentieth century, native Hawaiians, and especially part-Hawaiians, had some advantage over other ethnic groups in the professions, particularly in the fields of law, politics, and teaching. This advantage disappeared by 1940, however. By 1950, full-Hawaiians were over-represented in the unskilled labor class. Data for 1975 show that only 17.8 percent of native Hawaiian men have professional/managerial positions, while 53.6 percent are classified as blue collar workers. According to 1970 U.S. Census information, the employment status of native Hawaiians is as follows:

  • 4.3 percent of native Hawaiian men and 5.2 percent of native Hawaiian women were unemployed, compared to State figures of 2.6 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively;
  • 76.4 percent of native Hawaiian males over the age of 16 were in the labor force, compared with the State figure of 81.5 percent;
  • 47.9 percent of native Hawaiian women over the age of 16 were in the labor force, compared with 49 percent for the State as a whole.

A 1975 Census Update Survey estimated that the unemployment rate for native Hawaiians was 11.6 percent, compared to 6.5 percent for the State of Hawaii as a whole.

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F. INCOME

As is the case with employment figures, income levels are closely related to educational attainment. The economic advancement of native Hawaiians has been relatively slow compared with that of the major immigrant groups in Hawaii. This fact may reflect the continuation of traditional values, in which accumulation of money does not figure prominently, as Adams noted (see above, page 49). Although their median income in 1949 was slightly above that recorded for all males, the proportion of Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians in the lowest income class was notably above that of any of the major immigrant groups. Other evidence indicates that pure Hawaiians, even more disproportionately than part-Hawaiians, were represented in the lowest income levels. 53/

The 1970 Census shows that by 1969 all groups had improved their economic situation (see Table 20). The median income for Hawaiians was still below that for Chinese and Japanese, but it was higher than the median income of the "all races" group, the Caucasian group, and the Filipinos. The proportion of native Hawaiians in the lower income groups also improved. These figures may be misleading, however, as pointed out in several comments received by the Commission, 54/ since military income is included in Caucasian income, lowering the range. One writer notes that a more accurate picture can be obtained from the 1975 Census Update Survey, which shows that Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian personal income was below both the Caucasian and State-wide figures. 55/ Another source of data confirms this latter statement. The Hawaii Health Surveillance Program results show that in 1977, the median family income of civilians in Hawaii for selected ethnic groups was as follows: 56/

Pure Hawaiian $ 9,278
Filipino 12,683
Part-Hawaiian 13,615
Caucasian 19,005
Japanese 19,431
Chinese 21,183

Poverty Level and Welfare

Statistics from the State Department of Health show that 41,483 native Hawaiians, or about 27 percent, were classified as below the poverty level in Hawaii in 1975 (see Table 21).

The number of native Hawaiians in certain welfare categories far exceeds their relative share of the population. In 1982, while native Hawaiians comprised 12 percent of the total State population, they made up 30.8 percent of those in the AFDC-UP category (see Table 22). In the general assistance category, 22.1 percent were native Hawaiians and native Hawaiians comprised 15.2 percent of the food stamps program. However, native Hawaiians comprised 10.7 percent of the medical category and thus were underrepresented when compared to their population share. */

The State of Hawaii Department of Social Services and Housing notes that these figures may lead to a different conclusion than that many native Hawaiians are on welfare:

If welfare is based upon need (i.e., in accordance with strict Federal and State guidelines),

*/ The figures presented in this paragraph were submitted by the Hawaii State Department of Social Services and Housing. The population figures used are from the U.S. Census. If State of Hawaii population figures had been used, native Hawaiians would comprise 18.9 percent of the population and thus be under-represented in both the "food stamps" and "medical" categories.

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then the data may also demonstrate a "healthy attitude" on the part of native Hawaiians toward their welfare programs. Their social concept of "shame" may not prevent the use of welfare and, therefore, we may be seeing their greater, more optimum use of welfare programs as compared to other cultures. 57/

Summary

In 1949, the proportion of native Hawaiian males in the lowest income brackets was above that for all other groups. Their median income for the same year was higher than the "all races" and Filipino groups but below that of the Chinese, Caucasian, and Japanese groups.

By 1969, the situation of the native Hawaiians had improved somewhat. They were no longer over-represented in the lowest income categories. According to U.S. Census data, their median income was higher than the "all races" group, the Caucasians, and the Filipinos, but below that for the Chinese and Japanese.

Other statistics paint a more dismal picture, however:

  • According to the 1975 Census Update Survey and Hawaii State data, native Hawaiian income levels were still below the Caucasian figures, contrary to the U.S. Census information; 58/
  • In 1975, over one-fourth (27 percent) of native Hawaiians were classified as below the poverty level; and
  • In 1982, the percentage of native Hawaiians on welfare (AFDC and general assistance) was significantly higher than their relative share of the population.

G. CRIMINAL JUSTICE */

Hawaii ranks thirty-ninth among the fifty States and the District of Columbia in terms of population. However, Hawaii is ranked sixth among the States and the District of Columbia on the total crime index. Breaking the crime index down by type, Hawaii is ranked thirty-ninth for violent crime (the same as its population rank), and fifth for non-violent crime.

Ethnic Stock of Adult Arrestees

Table 23 shows the ethnic stock of persons arrested in Hawaii in 1981 compared to each ethnic group's percentage share of the population. The percentage of arrestees who were Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian was 23 percent, almost double their share of the population (12 percent, according to the 1980 U.S. Census). "Negroes" comprised 4.1 percent of those arrested, more than double their share of the population (1.8 percent). Other ethnic groups whose proportion of arrests was greater than their share of the population were:

Caucasian—35.3 percent (33 percent of population); and the "other" group— 11.9 percent (5 percent of population).

Comments received by the Commission on its Draft Report 59/ cast some doubt on the validity of these figures. Specifically, "the ethnic definitions used in the numerators [of Tables 23 and 25] seem to differ significantly from those used in the denominators." 60/ The result of using these figures is "a serious exaggeration of [native] Hawaiian crime rates." 61/ Using the


*/ All the information in this section is taken from State of Hawaii, Hawaii Criminal Justice Information Data Center, Crime in Hawaii 1981; A Review of Uniform Crime Reports (April 1981).

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population figures of the Hawaii Health Surveillance Program (which are used in this Report in Table 6), instead of the 1980 U.S. Census data (see Table 5) used by the Hawaii Criminal Justice Center, would yield significantly different results. The Health Surveillance Program tabulation (see Table 24) indicates that native Hawaiians constitute 18.9 percent of Hawaii's population (instead of 12 percent) and therefore the proportion of arrestees (23 percent) would not be double (although still greater than) native Hawaiians' share of the population. Both tabulations are presented here because, for whatever reason, the Hawaii Criminal Justice Information Data Center chose to use U.S. Census population figures in Tables 23 and 2 5. In a footnote to the table the Center states: "Population figures from State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Development. By self-identification or race of mother. Data are not comparable to Health Surveillance Program tabulations used in previous years' reports." 62/

Table 25 shows the race of those arrested for specific crimes in Hawaii in 1981. For all crimes listed in the table except gambling, the race of those arrested was most often White, and the second most numerous group of arrestees was Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian in all cases except manslaughter. The number of Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians arrested for each crime was greater than their relative share of the population (12 percent, in this study), except for manslaughter and gambling. 63/ Of those arrested for robbery and burglary, 24.5 percent and 27.3 percent were Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian. The White group percentages also exceeded their population share (33 percent), althouyh not in as many categories.

A study on incarceration was written by University of Hawaii sociologist Jean Kussebaum. She found that nearly 60 percent of the prison population in Hawaii is Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian. 64/

Race of Juveniles Arrested

Educational difficulties of native Hawaiian youths are reflected in criminal justice statistics. According to State of Hawaii statistics, native Hawaiian youths comprised the largest percentage of arrestees for each crime appearing in Table 26. Almost 53 percent of juveniles arrested for motor vehicle theft were native Hawaiian. More than 44 percent of runaways were native Hawaiian, and more than 42 percent of juveniles arrested for burglary were native Hawaiian.

Summary

The percent of native Hawaiian adults arrested in Hawaii in 1981 was greater than the native Hawaiian percentage share of the population. The percentage of native Hawaiians arrested for specific crimes was also, in many crime categories, larger than their share of the population. The picture for native Hawaiian juveniles arrested in 1981 was even more striking. Native Hawaiian juveniles comprised the largest percent of those arrested for each crime examined.

H. HEALTH 65/

Birth and Death Rates

Evidence compiled by population' experts indicates that there were "widespread and prolonged low birth rates [in Hawaii in the nineteenth century] due to venereal disease." 66/ The birth rate in Hawaii increased from 21.3 in the 1848 to 1859 period to 23.6 in the 1880 to 1889 period, while the death rate declined from 45.8 to 25.3 in the same interval.

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From 1960 to 1965, the birth rate went from 31.3 to 27.3, while the death rate continued its decline from 16.3 to 5.5 (see Table 27). Since the figures on birth and death rates that appear in Table 27 refer to all residents in Hawaii (not just native Hawaiians) it will be helpful to keep in mind the composition of the population during the time covered in the table (1848 through 1965). 67/ The birth and death rates from the period of 1848 to 1884 occurred during a decline in the proportion of full-Hawaiians from greater than 95 percent of the population to less than 50 percent, and a further decline to less than two percent in 1965 (concomitant with a decline in the overall death rate). At the same time, there was a gradual increase in the part-Hawaiian population from less than two percent in 1848 to about 15 percent in 1965.

The death rate for the State of Hawaii did not decrease much from 1965—the death rate in 1980 was 5.0, compared to 5.5 in 1965. 68/ The birth rate declined from 27.3 in 1965 to 18.6 in 1980 for the State population as a whole. 69/

Infant Mortality

Extraordinary improvement in the overall infant mortality rate in Hawaii occurred during this century— from 119 deaths per 1,000 births in 1924 to 10 deaths per 1,000 by 1980. Throughout most of this period, however, Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians continued to display mortality rates higher than the average. For example, in 1970 full-Hawaiians had an infant mortality rate of 65, compared to 22 for part-Hawaiians, and 19 for the State as a whole (see Table 28).

Only the accompanying high birth rates among native Hawaiians off-set infant mortality and permitted the population to increase. These high birth rates also created an age distribution that was heavily weighted toward a young population; a trend that continues today (see above, page 41).

The high infant death rates for Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii continues. According to the Hawaii State Department of Health: "The infant death rate of part-Hawaiians was significantly higher during the five-year period of 1977-1981 than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipino and Japanese. The confidence limits on the small races were so broad that their rates for that period cannot be considered significantly different from any of the larger racial groups." 70/ Table 29 shows that the infant death rate for part-Hawaiians during this period was 13.8, compared to 8.9 for Caucasians, 7.0 for Chinese, 9.2 for Filipinos, 8.8 for Japanese, and 10.5 for the "all races" group.

Table 3 0 presents comparative figures for characteristics of births in Hawaii in 1980. Part-Hawaiians have a relatively high birth rate higher than full-Hawaiians, which foreshadows the trend already indicated for an increasing part- Hawaiian population. Full- and part- Hawaiians have a similar male/female birth ratio. Part- and full-Hawaiian infants have low birth weights 7.4 percent of the time, compared to 11.8 percent for Japanese and 9.3 percent for the Filipino group. Part- Hawaiians, followed by full-Hawaiians, have an extremely high ratio of illegitimate births.

Life Expectancy

Life expectancy patterns for the nineteenth century in Hawaii are not available. However, by 1910 enough reliable data had been collected to make this kind of statistical extrapolation possible. These projections reveal that native Hawaiians exhibited

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a significantly lower life expectancy throughout the period from 1910 through 1970 than any other ethnic group in Hawaii. In 1970, the life expectancy for native Hawaiians was 67.62 years, compared to 77.44 for Japanese (the highest of all groups) and 74.20 years for all groups (see Table 31).

Leading Causes of Death

Table 32 shows the leading causes of death for the State of Hawaii population as a whole from 1920 to 1980. 71/ Most notable of those causes that are growing in importance as the century progresses are heart disease (although it declined in importance from 1960 to 1980) and cancer.

There is considerable variation in the proportion of persons dying of various causes in the different races of Hawaii. Table 33 shows the "crude" mortality rates by race for the ten leading causes of death in Hawaii for 1980. 72/ The death rate (based on estimated population per 100,000) for diseases of the heart was 163 for Caucasians compared to 62 for Hawaiians (the lowest of the five ethnic groups compared). The rate for cancer was: 138 for Japanese, 130 for Caucasians, 123 for Chinese, 113 for native Hawaiians, and 85 for Filipinos.

In February 1982, the Hawaii State Department of Health published a study by Mele A. Look, on the mortality of the Hawaiian people. 73/ Look, who is a student at the University of Hawaii, compared the mortality rates of full-Hawaiians, part-Hawaiians, and an "all races" group (the sum of all other ethnic groups in the State of Hawaii) for the years from 1910 to 1980.

Look's study reports the following findings (see also, Chart 5):

Overall mortality rates:

  • For each period studied, the major causes of death were the same for all three groups;
  • Overall mortality rates have been continuously declining for all three groups;
  • The "all races" group has the lowest rates overall; part-Hawaiians had rates similar to the "all races" group in many cases;
  • Rates for full-Hawaiians have been declining but remain at a consistently higher level.

Causes of death now on a downward trend:

  • Pneumonia, non-rheumatic endocarditis and myocardial degeneration, and infective and parasitic diseases, such as tuberculosis—full-Hawaiians' mortality rates for these diseases were two to five times higher than the "all races" group and as much as four times higher than the part-Hawaiians' mortality rates.

Causes of death on an upward trend:

  • Heart disease—mortality rates were generally higher for fulland part-Hawaiians except in 1910, 1920 and 1960, when rates for part-Hawaiians were not significantly different from the "all races" group; full-Hawaiians' heart disease mortality rates were consistently greater than the other groups;
  • Cancer--the part-Hawaiian and "all races" groups' mortality rates were at similar levels, differing significantly only in 1930 and 1970; full-Hawaiians have a mortality rate of one to two times higher than both of the other groups:
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  • Accidents—death rates did not differ significantly between part-Hawaiians and the "all races" group, but full-Hawaiians' rates were two times higher; this may be due to type of occupation.

===Probable factors 74/=== that may be associated with high mortality rates of full-Hawaiians:

  • Income level;
  • Inadequate understanding of Western health care and a formal education;
  • High content of salt in Hawaiian foods;
  • Cultural concepts of health and illness that may affect self-diagnosis and willingness to seek treatment;
  • Genetic factors; the ability to resist diseases may be associated with ethnicity.

Incidence of Cancer 75/

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Hawaii and during 1980, there were 2,769 new cases of cancer diagnosed. The incidence of cancer varies markedly in the various racial groups in the State. Table 34 compares the "age standardized" incidence rates of selected cancers for five groups (Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, native Hawaiian, and Japanese) for the period 1973 through 1980. Since the incidence varies by age, the rates are "standardized" to show what the rates in the various racial groups would be, if all groups had the same age composition. The table shows that of the five ethnic groups, native Hawaiian men had by far the highest incidence of stomach and lung cancer. They had the second highest incidence of prostate cancer, after Caucasian men. For women, the incidence of cancer of the lung and breast was highest for native Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women were second to Caucasian women in the incidence of cancer of the cervix.

Acute and Chronic Conditions 76/

The State of Hawaii collects data on the presence and prevalence of acute and chronic conditions. As seen in Table 35, the Hawaiian and part- Hawaiian group reports the highest overall level of acute conditions among the major ethnic groups in Hawaii. They have particularly high rates for respiratory conditions.

The Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian group fares better when compared to other ethnic groups on the prevalence of chronic conditions (see Table 36). Of the twenty chronic conditions reported, the native Hawaiian group scored highest in only one (not counting the "other" group), asthma with or without hayfever. The Hawaiian group reported the second highest prevalence in two categories: mental and nervous condition and bronchitis/emphysema. The Hawaiian group also reported the lowest prevalence of malignant neoplasms (cancer).

A few cautionary notes should be added to this discussion. As reported in the mortality study above, combining full- and part-Hawaiians may be misleading, given the significantly higher mortality rate of full- Hawaiians for some of these diseases. The method of collecting the data must also be considered. The data in these tables was gathered by the Hawaii Health Surveillance Program via a statewide household survey. During 1980, 14,407 persons were interviewed to obtain these statistics. Those excluded from the sample were:

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persons living in military barracks, nursing or rest homes, prisons, dormitories, the island of Niihau, and Kalaupapa Settlement. 77/

Other information received by the Commission 78/ confirms that full- and part-Hawaiians do indeed have health problems in some areas. Data prepared by the Hawaii Department of Health for Alu Like, Inc., shows that full- and part-Hawaiians reported higher prevalences, compared to all races, for the followinq conditions:

Condition Full-Hawaiians All Races
High blood pressure 22.6% 12.2%
Diabetes 14.4 5.3
Arthritis 8.3 5.6
Heart trouble 4.2 2.8
Stroke 1.4 0.7


Condition Part-Hawaiians All Races
Asthma 17.2% 8.5
Chronic bronchitis 3.8 1.7

Substance Abuse

An assessment of the needs in Hawaii for alcohol and drug abuse prevention was recently made by the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Branch of the Hawaii State Health Department. The assessment is based on data from the 1979 State Substance Abuse Survey. To conpile this information, face-to-face interviews were conducted with persons 12 years of aoe and older in 3,127 households throughout the State. 79/ In evaluating the data, the report warns that:

It should be noted that all quoted nunbers of the alcohol and drug abuse populations are likely to be severe under-estimates. Federal studies have demonstrated that self-reported alcohol use is underreported by nearly 50 percent. This phenomenon is likely to be even greater for the usage of illegal substances such as marijuana or cocaine...80/

Despite this problem and the fact that the information is now four years old, the report is "the most comprehensive and detailed look at Hawaii's alcohol and drug abuse problems to date." 81/

The report divides substance abusers into three categories: alcohol abusers, drug abusers, and abusers of both alcohol and drugs. Combining all three, there were approximately 103,748 persons in Hawaii in 1979 who were currently substance abusers. This number accounts for 14.7 percent of Hawaii's population 12 years of age and older. 82/ The following sections discuss abuse and treatment in each of the categories, across ethnic groups in Hawaii.

Alcohol Use and Abuse

Alcohol use is less prevalent in Hawaii than it is on the U.S. mainland. In Hawaii, 79.2 percent of the population has tried alcohol at least once in their lives. This compares to 90 percent on the mainland. In terms of current alcohol users, 55.1 percent of Hawaii's population currently uses alcohol, compared to 61 percent of the mainland population. Current alcohol use is also significantly lower for Hawaii in each age category, compared to similar mainland age categories. 83/

Table 37 summarizes the lifetime and current use of alcohol in Hawaii for the various ethnic groups. The group with the highest percentage of current users is the Caucasian group (77.7 percent), followed by the Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian (52.8) and Portuguese (52.6) groups. State-wide, 55.1 percent of the population are current users.

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Approximately 7.6 percent of Hawaii's general population reported the average daily consumption of two or more ounces of pure ethanol per day */ and were thus classified as alcohol abusers. 84/ The comparison of alcohol abusers by ethnic group is shown in Table 38. Relative to their population sizes, Caucasians (40.6 percent of alcohol abusers) and Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (19.4 percent) constitute the groups most at risk for alcohol abuse.

Table 38 also shows ethnic breakdowns of those alcohol abusers who have received treatment. The needs assessment reports that all demographic groups are "dramatically underserved." The unduplicated treatment admission count for fiscal year 1979-1980 represented only 2.8 percent of the estimated alcohol abusers in need of services. 85/ Comparing their percentage in treatment to their percentage of the alcohol abusing population, the Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian, and "other" ethnic category groups were especially underserved. Caucasians, on the other hand, were overserved.

Drug Use and Abuse

Compared to the U.S. mainland, the 1979 State Survey revealed the following drug use trends in Hawaii:

  • Hawaii has a significantly greater percentage of persons who have used cocaine, hallucinogens, and heroin than the mainland.
  • The current use of cocaine is significantly greater in Hawaii than on the mainland. 86/

Ethnic trends for drug use in Hawaii are also summarized:

  • Over forty percent of both Caucasians (43.2 percent) and Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (40.2 percent) have tried marijuana.
  • Nearly one out of four Caucasians (22.7 percent) have tried cocaine, while fifteen percent of the Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians have tried it.
  • One out of ten Caucasians (10 percent) and thirteen percent of Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (13.4 percent) have tried inhalants.
  • One out of five Caucasians (19.9 percent) and nearly twelve percent (11.8 percent) of Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians have tried hallucinogens.
  • Nearly one out of twenty Caucasians (4.6 percent) and Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (4.9 percent) have tried heroin at least once in their lives.
  • Caucasians have the greatest percentages of lifetime use for all non-medical psychotherapeutic drugs, with the exception of the non-medical use of tranquilizers among Portuguese (14.7 percent).
  • Nearly one out of ten Caucasians (9.5 percent) and one out of twenty Hawaiians and part-Hawanans (4.9 percent) and Portuguese (4.5 percent) report current cocaine use.

*/ Roughly equivalent to four bet-is or four wines or 3.5 hard-liquor drinks in the Hawaii Department of Health Study (p. 6).

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  • Approximately one out of five Caucasians (21 percent) and Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians (20.9 percent) are current marijuana users. 87/

Approximately 5.3 percent of Hawaii's general population age 12 and over are drug abusers. 88/ Of these drug abusers, 49.1 percent are Caucasian and 22.3 percent are Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian. As with alcohol abuse, Caucasians and Hawaiians/part- Hawaiians are the groups most at risk for a drug abuse problem, relative to their respective population sizes. (See Table 39 for the ethnic composition of Hawaii's drug-abusing population.)

Table 39 also shows, by ethnic group, the drug abusing population that is receiving treatment. Overall, all drug abusers are underserved since only 1.8 percent of the drug abusers in need of services were in treatment in fiscal year 1979-80. 89/ Comparing their percentage in treatment with their percentage in the drug-abusing population, Caucasians were underserved, while Hawaiians and part- Hawaiians were overserved.

Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Of the 12,163 persons (1.7 percent of Hawaii's general population) who abuse both alcohol and drugs, 49 percent are Caucasians, and 22.8 percent are Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian. Relative to their population size, Caucasians, Hawaiians/part-Hawaiians, and Portuguese are most at risk for an alconol/drug-abuse problem. 90/ (See Table 4 0.)

Summary

Birth rates in Hawaii were low in the nineteenth century. The fertility rate could not keep pace with the episodic arrival of epidemics and disease. In 1980,. Hawaii's death rate was 5.0, down a little troin the 1960-1965 figure of 5.5. The birth rate for the State decreased from 27.3 in 1965 to 18.6 in 1980.

Infant mortality has remained higher for native Hawaiians than for the other groups in Hawaii in the twentieth century, even though it has been steadily declining. In 1963, the infant mortality rate for Hawaiians was 38 and that for part-Hawaiians was 25. The infant death rate of part- Hawaiians remains significantly higher than that of Caucasians, Chinese, Filipinos, and Japanese.

Other statistics show that part- Hawaiians have a birth rate of 2 3.1, compared to 17.5 for full-Hawaiians and 19.5 for the State. Part- Hawaiians and full-Hawaiians also have a significantly higher rate of illegitimate births than the other ethnic groups.

Native Hawaiians have historically had a lower life expectancy than other groups in Hawaii. This trend continues—in 1970, the native Hawaiian life expectancy was 67.62 years, compared with a total for the State of 74.20 years.

A study published by the State of Hawaii Department of Health examined mortality rates among full-Hawaiians, part-Hawaiians, and all other races in Hawaii from 1910 to 1980. The study concluded that:

  • Part-Hawaiians' mortality rates for heart disease were generally higher than the "all races" group except for some years;
  • Full-Hawaiians' mortality rates for heart disease were consistently higher than those for either of the other groups;
  • Part-Hawaiians and the "all races" group had similar mortality rates fen cancer, while
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the rate for full-Hawaiians was much higher than that for either of the other groups; and

  • The mortality rate for accidents did not differ for part-Hawaiians and the "all races" group, but it was two times higher for the full- Hawaiian group.

Statistics from the Hawaii Tumor Registry show that native Hawaiian men had the highest incidence of stomach and lung cancer for the period from 1973 through 1980, compared to Caucasian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese. Native Hawaiian women, compared to these same ethnic groups, had the highest incidence of lung and breast cancer.

The Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian group reports the highest prevalence among ethnic groups of "acute conditions," especially respiratory conditions. For chronic conditions, the prevalence for the native Hawaiians relative to the other groups is high only for asthma, mental and nervous conditions, and bronchitis/ emphysema. According to this data, native Hawaiians report the lowest prevalence of cancer (as opposed to incidence), compared to other groups.

For the purposes of the Hawaii State Substance Abuse Survey, Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians accounted for 15.8 percent of the general population of Hawaii. With this number as a comparison, the following data summarizes the findings of the Hawaii substance abuse needs survey:

  • Of the total number of estimated substance abusers in Hawaii (103,748 or 14.7 percent of Hawaii's general population), 20.9 percent were Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian.
  • Alcohol abusers in Hawaii tend to be older (26 years and above), male, either Caucasian or Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian, married, employed, have more than a high school education, and live in East Honolulu or Central Oahu.
  • Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians account for 19.4 percent of alcohol abusers, and only two

percent of this group receives treatment.

  • Drug abusers tend to be younger (under 26), equally male or female, Caucasian or Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian, single, employed, have more than a high school education, and reside in East Honolulu or Central Oahu.
  • Of the total estimated number of drug abusers, 22.3 percent are Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian, and only 3.6 percent of this group receives treatment.
  • Abusers of both drugs and alcohol tend to be predominantly male, Caucasian or Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian, equally young or old (26 and over), single, employed, have more than a high school education, and live in East Honolulu or Central Oahu or Maui.
  • Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians account for 22.8 percent of the alcohol and drug-abuse population. 91/

I. SOCIO-POLITICAL PROFILE

Inter-marriage

In Hawaii, interracial marriage is recognized in law, and there is no public opposition to it. Although there may be personal and family sentiment against interracial marriage, this is not overriding. As Romanzo Adams notes:

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If antagonistic sentiment prevails in some group of less influence and if its members feel free to give expression to such antagonistic sentiment only within the intimate group of like-minded and under conditions that more or less imply that it is confidential, such sentiment may be important in some ways but it is not public sentiment. In Hawaii a man or woman is free to marry out of his or her race so far as public sentiment is concerned. 92/

Adams feels that the large number of interracial marriages in Hawaii is a consequence of this freedom. 93/

Interracial marriage became an acceptable phenomenon in Hawaii very quickly after the arrival of foreigners. There were many factors contributing to this acceptance. First, the Hawaiian family system at the time was not rigidly organized. There was much freedom in interpersonal and sexual relations, except for the ali'i. Little or no ceremony was associated with either marriage or divorce. Marriage to one partner did not prevent marriage to another at the same time. The practice of giving away children to friends or relatives to raise (hanai) further increased the freedom of women. Adams concluded that:

The freedom of the Hawaiians in relation to marriage was an important factor in the early interracial marriage. Had there been a strictly organized and regulated system among the Hawaiians it would have operated to prevent marriage with foreigners because the foreigners who came to Hawaii could not readily conform to the requirement of such regulations. 94/

Other factors also contributed to this phenomenon. Since Hawaiians had had no contact with outside groups, they were free of an antagonistic bias against them or against marrying them. At first, most interracial marriages were between native women and foreign men. The explanation for this is obvious: the white men who arrived as traders brought no women. Later, when immigrant laborers began to arrive, only the Portuguese required that women accompany the men. Thus, there were disproportionate numbers of males over females for ethnic groups such as the Japanese, Chinese and Filipinos.

Another factor to be considered in this connection was the rapidly declining population of native Hawaiians throughout the nineteenth century. Kings, chiefs, and missionaries alike were concerned, and the government of the kingdom consciously searched for cognate racial groups to strengthen the Hawaiian stock. Intermarriage was not only accepted, for native Hawaiians it was necessary to save the race. Chart 6 confirms this fact, showing as it does the steadily declining full-Hawaiian population and the rapid increase in the part- Hawaiian population after 1920.

Table 41 shows the percent of marriages for each ethnic group that involved a partner of another ethnic group for the period from 1912 to 1981. The high percentage of such "out-marriages" for native Hawaiians is evident throughout the interval covered by the table.

World War II, with the attendant increase in military personnel, had an important effect on race relations in Hawaii. The large influx of white males brought a form of racial prejudice to Hawaii that had not been prevalent before. Nevertheless, there was an increase in out-marrlages, especially of Caucasian males and non- Caucasian females. 95/

The result of this extensive interracial marriage has been the creation of a population of considerable racial and cultural diversity. The extent of racial harmony among groups throughout

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history is a matter of some dispute. Based on his studies, Adams wrote that:

...there is, in Hawaii, an uncommon degree of freedom in relation to interracial marriage and that this freedom is the consequence of the special practices, doctrines and sentiments relating to race that have come out of the historic conditions. The historic situation has favored the development of the mores of racial equality. Because there is no denial of political rights and economic or educational privilege on grounds of race, because racial equality is symbolized, the social code permits of marriage across race lines. 96/

The Commission received comments 97/ on the issue of racism in Hawaii that do not coincide with the conclusion of sociologist Romanzo Adams that: "The historic situation has favored the development of the mores of racial equality." 98/ Even though race relations do not seem to be the idyll painted by some authors, racial tensions in Hawaii do not seem to be all-pervasive. One writer states, for example, that "while there were many times in the past [that is, in the 1800's] when native Hawaiians felt the pangs of racism, for the most part racism was kept beneath the surface and remained latent." 99/ Later on during the Republic of Hawaii (1894-1900), property qualifications and other restrictions for voters would openly discriminate against poor native Hawaiians and all Asiatics in Hawaii (see following section).

Race relations in Hawaii did, however, reach dangerously low levels in the early 1930's with the Massie rape case, which was cited in at least one comment received by the Commiboion. 100/ In 1931, Mrs. Massie, the wife of a young Navy lieutenant, was attacked and allegedly raped by five "dark-skinned youths" near Waikiki. 101/ A racially-mixed jury was unable to reach a verdict on her alleged assailants and: "A private report from the Pmkerton Detective Agency to Governor Judd showed subsequently that the woman's story was full of contradictions and that in the opinion of the consultants, an acquittal was absolutely justified." 102/ The U.S. Navy did not agree and the "Commandant of the Fourteenth Naval District sent scorching wires to the Secretary of the Navy denouncing the administration of justice in Hawaii." 103/ Meanwhile, Mrs. Massie's husband and mother kidnapped one of the accused, a native Hawaiian, and killed him. This time, the jury convicted them. After much agitation on the U.S. mainland and by the military in Hawaii, however, the Governor commuted the 10-year prison sentences of Mrs. Massie's husband and mother to one hour.

The uproar caused by this case was accompanied by "hysterical" Navy reports stating that the enforcement of the law in Hawaii was lax and inefficient and described "dark gangs of prowlers, lusting after white women, Japanese annoyances directed at Navy personnel, and riots caused by fighting between natives and Orientals against whites." 104/ As a result, there was strong pressure by the Navy to strip Hawaii of its territorial status, and bills were introduced in Congress to create a commission government in Hawaii in which the Array and Navy would have a voice. None of these bills was passed, but the residents of Hawaii became aware for the first time of their tenuous position as a U.S. territory.

Political Participation

The Monarchy

The evolution of native Hawaiian society from birth-determined chiefs

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to constitutional monarchy in the 1840's permitted limited political participation by all of the people for the first time. Although mana (the degree of sacred power and rank) was supplanted by hereditary succession to the throne in 1819, it was not until the Constitution of 1840 that any fundamental changes in the traditional patterns of governance occurred.

The Constitution of 1840 created a two-house legislature based on the British Parliamentary model. The House of Nobles was to be appointed by the king and duplicated the pre-contact Council of Chiefs. The House of Representatives was to be elected from and by adult males who were citizens of the kingdom. (For a more complete description of the Constitution, see below page 158.)

The notion of male suffrage, like the House of Representatives itself, was a Western concept. Women of high royal rank were included in the House of Nobles, but precluded from the democratically-inspired electoral process. In addition, the position of kuhina nui, or premier, became a male function for the first time, after twenty years of hereditary succession by the highest-ranking woman.

As early as the reign of Kamehameha IV (1854-1863), however, there were attempts to change the constitution. The king, and his brother who would succeed him, believed the existing constitution was too far in advance of the needs of the people. The king wanted to centralize more power to the monarch and to limit suffrage.

Both of these goals were accomplished by Kamehameha V (1863- 1872) when he abrogated the old constitution and proclaimed a new one in 1864. Universal manhood suffrage was abolished. Property qualifications were instituted for the members of the House of Representatives and property and educational qualifications were instituted for voters. Although Lunalilo, Kamehameha V's successor, successfully petitioned the legislature to repeal the property qualification for voters, education requirements remained.

The Republic of Hawaii

Preparations for establishing the Republic of Hawaii in 1894 placed new restrictions on voters. The first step in adopting a constitution for the Republic was to elect the delegates to a constitutional convention. All voters were required to sign an oath that stated, in part, H...I will support and bear true allegiance to the Provisional Government of the Hawaiian Islands, and will oppose any attempt to reestablish monarchical government in any form in the Hawaiian Islands." 105/ This requirement had the intended effect of disenfranchising almost all the native Hawaiian voters. Another, unexpected effect, however, was the disenfranchisement of many Americans who were afraid that by signing the oath, they would lose their U.S. citizenship. 106/ The result of this disenfranchisement was striking: in 1890 there had been 13,593 registered electors; for the election of delegates to the constitutional convention, there were only 4,477. 107/

The constitutional convention, made up of eighteen elected delegates and nineteen members of the Provisional Government (to ensure "success" of those in favor of a Republic) agreed on a constitution that "was satisfactory to all but the most extreme oligarchs." 108/ Property qualifications were instituted for both voters and members of the legislature. Candidates for the Senate, or upper house, were required to have an income of $1,200 or to own $3,000 in property. Candidates for the lower house, the House of Representatives, had to have an income of $600 or own property worth $1,000. 109/ Requirements tor voters were:

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  • An oath pledging the voter would not aid in any attempted restoration of the monarchy;
  • The ability to read, write, and speak either Hawaiian or English;
  • To vote for Senators, the voter was required to have $1,500 above all incumbrances, or personal property worth $3,000, or an income of $600 (in a ll cases, all taxes must have been paid). There were no property qualifications required to vote for members of the House of Representatives. 110/

Another issue the Republic's constitution had to resolve was the question of citizenship. This issue was "rather skillfully " 111/ handled to ensure exclusion of all Orientals from the franchise. The constitution stated that all persons born or naturalized in Hawaii were citizens. In addition, the Minister of Interior could grant citizenship to foreigners who had fought for the Provisional Government, without prejudicing the foreigner's native allegiance (an action that would prove to be controversial). 112/ For others, in order to be naturalized a person must have come from a country that had a naturalization treaty with Hawaii (Japan and China did not) and, "as an extra precaution," should be able to speak, read, and write English. 113/

The obvious result of these provisions was to disenfranchise many voters. One historian notes, however, that registration for the first legislative election (although far below pre-Republic levels) showed "great improvement" over the number of voters who had registered for election of delegates to the constitutional convention. 114/ On Oahu, 1,917 voters registered, of whom there were 509 native Hawaiians, 466 Americans, 274 from England and its colonies, 175 Germans, 362 Portuguese, and 131 others. 115/

Territory and State

After annexation to the United States and passage of the implementing legislation (the Organic Act) in 1900, the situation changed dramatically. Broad male suffrage was restored in Hawaii for the first time since 1864. All citizens of the Republic automatically became citizens of the Territory of Hawaii and there were no property qualifications for voters or for candidates. Because Oriental immigrants were still excluded from voting due to the definition of citizenship, native Hawaiians could command an absolute majority at the polls. 116/

Royal presence in this new political pattern, especially in partisan party politics, was assured when Prince David Kawananakoa became one of the charter members of the new Hawaii Democratic Party and his younger brother, Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole, occupied a similar position in the new Hawaii Republican Party. In this way, it was believed that the royal family could maintain a dominant role in island government. Prince Kuhio, for example, served as the Territory's delegate to Congress from 1904 until his death in 1921. The delegate's position, although non-voting in the national legislature, was the highest elective office for which any voters could cast ballots. As a Territory, Hawaii could not vote for the U.S. president or vice president, it had only the one non-voting slot in the U.S. House of Representatives, and its governor and secretary were appointed by the President of the United States.

From 1902 until 1940, the Territory identified voters by "race." Although

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native Hawaiians were a numerical minority within the total population, as noted above the exclusion of Asian immigrants who had retained a non-American nationality left native Hawaiians as the dominant ethnic block until just prior to World War II. According to one author: "In every election, Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians comprised more than half of the candidates for office. The Hawaiian voter turnout was always substantially higher than that for other groups..." 117/. Table 42 shows the ethnic makeup of registered voters in Hawaii from 1902 to 1940.

The possibility of race-oriented voting patterns has always been present in Hawaii for one group or another. In numerical terms, once native Hawaiians lost the absolute majority of the electorate in 1925, no other ethnic group has ever had the voter strength to win a territorial or statewide election by itself. Writers disagree, however, on the degree to which racial prejudice affects voting trends in Hawaii. Andrew Lind, writing in 1967, states that:

...even in a local election district, where a majority of the voters might be of the candidate's own ethnic group, publicly to solicit support on a racial basis would under Hawaiian conditions be tantamount to committing political suicide. The candidate would draw to himself the wrath of all the other ethnic groups as well as the hostility of the members of his own group in the opposition party. 118/

Others, including some Hawaiians who connented on the Commission's Draft Report, 119/ strongly disagree with this benign assessment. Lawrence Fuchs writes that: "In Hawaii, where the tradition of racial aloha and actual widespread intermarriage often prevented overt expressions of racial prejudice, ethnic tensions frequently found their way into the voting booth." 120/ To support this, Fuchs reports that interviews with more than three-quarters of the defeated candidates in the 1958 primaries revealed that:

  • The overwhelming majority of these men and women attributed their loss to the racial prejudice or pride of other groups constituting a majority of voters in their districts.
  • Defeated Chinese, haole, and Hawaiian Democrats often blamed Japanese voters for plunking for their own kind.
  • Republican Japanese primary losers complained they could not win haole votes and native Hawaiian Republicans also complained of haole domination of the party. 121/

Fuchs also studied key ethnic precincts and the results of voter surveys. He reports that these results revealed that:

  • All major ethnic groups tended to favor their own kind, but that Japanese plunking was far less decisive than frequently claimed, and that other groups—the Chinese, haole, Portuguese, and Hawaiians—plunked at least as extensively as the Japanese.
  • Ethnic tensions could readily be inferred from election results in key precincts-candidates did well in those precincts dominated by their own ethnic group.
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  • Strong candidates often did well among all groups, but always best with their own. Weak candidates limped badly everywhere, but showed least weakness among their own kind. 122/

Fuchs does not think that these manifestations of ethnic politics, however, are aberrations in the American political system. Rather, he says that "ethnic claims in politics, far from being un-American, followed the typical American pattern." 123/ Unlike Lind, however, he concludes that ethnic factors play a "significant role" (at least in that election) in Hawaiian politics. 124/

Creation of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs

A separate identification and unique political participation for native Hawaiians was ratified by a majority of the total State electorate in 1978 when key amendments to the State Constitution established the Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA). By the terms of the new Article XII:

... Section 5. There is hereby established an Office of Hawaiian Affairs. The Office of Hawaiian Affairs shall hold title to all the real and personal property now or hereafter set aside or conveyed to it which shall be held in trust for native Hawaiians and Hawaiians. There shall be a board of trustees for the Office of Hawaiian Affairs elected by qualified voters who are Hawaiians, as provided by law. The board members shall be Hawaiians. There shall be not less than nine members of the board of trustees; provided that each of the following islands have one representative: Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii. The board shall select a chairperson from its members...

The first OHA election in 1980 was supported by an 80 percent turnout among the more than 55,000 native Hawaiians who had registered to vote in this separate election (see Table 43). More than 100 candidates sought the nine positions on the board of trustees.

Table 44 shows the characteristics of the 1981 Hawaii State Legislature. There were seven part-Hawaiians in the State House of Representatives (14 percent of the total) and three in the State Senate (12 percent of the total).

Summary

The population of the State of Hawaii has considerable racial and cultural diversity. From the earliest times, interracial marriage was accepted by the community. As time went on and as different ethnic groups arrived, such marriages became widespread. Native Hawaiians have amonq the highest interracial marriage rates.

This racial and ethnic mixture has effects in the political sphere. Since the 1930's no one ethnic group has had an electoral majority, although ethnic factors do play a role in politics in Hawaii.

From the time of annexation until the 1930's, native Hawaiians comprised the largest voting block, with an absolute majority of all voters for much of that time. Voter participation among native Hawaiians was always high,

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However, during the Territory period, the highest elective office in Hawaii was the non-voting delegate to the U.S. Congress. The Governor was appointed by the President of the United States.

In 1978, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs was created, which has a board of trustees that is elected only by native Hawaiians. For the first board election in 1980, 31 percent of the total native Hawaiian population registered to vote, 80 percent of those who registered actually voted, and 100 candidates ran for the nine board positions.

The 1981 Hawaii State Legislature consisted of seven part-Hawaiians in the House of Representatives (out of a total of 51), and three in the Senate (out of a total of 25).

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DEMOGRAPHICS

TABLES

TABLE 1

TOTAL POPULATION: 1778 TO 1850

                                                      
              Population
Date  Series A a/  Series B a/     Date     Population
                                                      

1778   300,000      300,000       1823         134,925
1796   280,000      270,000       1831-1832    124,449
1803       ...      266,000       1835-1836    107,954
1804   280,000      154,000       Jan. 1849     87,063
1805   152,000          ...       Jan. 1850     84,165
1819   145,000      144,000
                                                      

a/ Adam's alternate estimates, here arbitrarily designated A and B.

Source: Robert C. Schmitt, Demographic Statistics of Hawaii: 1778-1965 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1968), p. 41.

TABLE 2

POPULATION OF HAWAII: 1850 to 1896

                                                      
Census Date      Population         Annual change
                                 Amount     Percent a/
                                                      
Jan. 1850            84,165       . . .       . . .   
Dec. 26, 1853        73,138      -2,771        -3.5
Dec. 24, 1860        69,800        -478        -0.7
Dec. 7, 1866         62,959      -1,150        -1.7
Dec. 27, 1872        56,897      -1,002        -1.7
Dec. 27, 1878        57,985         181         0.3
Dec. 27, 1884        80,578       3,766         5.5
Dec. 28, 1890        89,990       1,569         1.8
Dec. 27, 1896       109,020       3,310         3.3
                                                      

a/ Computed by the formula for continuous compounding.

Source: Schmitt, p. 69.

TABLE 3

HAWAIIAN POPULATION BY RACE: 1853-1896 (in percent)

                                                          Non-Hawaiian ("foreign")
                All       Hawaiian       Part-Hawaiian            Born in   Born
Census Year     Races     ("native")     ("half-caste")    Total  Hawaii  elsewhere
    1853        100.0       95.8            1.3             2.9    0.4       2.5
    1860 a/     100.0               96.1                    3.9    ---       ---
    1866        100.0       90.7            2.6             6.7    ---       ---
    1872        100.0       86.2            4.4             8.4    1.5       7.9
    1878        100.0       76.0            5.9            18.1    1.6      16.4
    1884        100.0       49.7            5.2            45.1    2.5      42.6
    1890        100.0       38.3            6.9            54.9    8.3      46.5
    1896        100.0       28.5            7.8            63.8   12.6      51.2
                                                                                   

a/ Chinese living in Honolulu are included with the native population.

Source: Schmitt, p. 74.

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TABLE 4

ETHNIC STOCK: 1900 TO 1960


                                                                                            
Ethnic Stock            1900 a/     1910      1920      1930      1940      1950    1960 b/
                                                                                            
  Total                 154,001   191,090   255,912   368,336   423,330   499,769   632,772
Percent Distribution
  Total                   100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0     100.0
Hawaiian                   19.3      13.6       9.3       6.1       3.4       2.5       1.8
Part-Hawaiian               5.1       6.5       7.0       7.7      11.8      14.8      14.4
Caucasian                  18.7      23.0      21.4      21.8      26.5      24.9      32.0
   Puerto Rican             --        2.5       2.2       1.8       2.0       1.9       --
   Spanish                  --        1.0       0.9       0.3
   Portuguese               --       11.6      10.6       7.5      24.5      23.0       --
   Other Caucasian          --        7.7       7.7      12.2
Chinese                    16.7      11.3       9.2       7.4       6.8       6.5       6.0
Filipino                    --        1.2       8.2      17.1      12.4      12.2      10.9
Korean                      --        2.4       1.9       1.8       1.6       1.4       --
Japanese                   39.7      41.5      42.7      37.9      37.3      36.9      32.2
Negro                       0.2       0.4       0.1       0.2       0.1       0.5       0.8
Other Races                 0.3       0.2       0.1       0.1       0.1       0.3       2.0
                                                                                            

a/ The 1900 Census apparently misclassified many Part-Hawaiians and used ethnic categories not entirely consistent with those of the 1910-1930 enumerations. Romanzo Adams made two separate efforts to adjust these data (see his The Peoples of Hawaii, p. 9, and Interracial Marriage in Hawaii, p. 8).

b/ A second tabulation of 1960 race statistics, using a different procedure for allocating nonresponse, resulted in significantly different totals for some groups, particularly the Hawaiians.

Source: Schmitt, p. 120; compiled from U.S. decennial census data.

TABLE 5

HAWAII POPULATION BY RACE: 1970 AND 1980

                           1970                   1980    
                       No.                    No.
Total                769,913                965,000       
 
White                298,160   38.8         318,608   33.0     
Black                  7,573    1.0          17,352    1.8
Am. Indian/Esk./
  Aleut                1,126    0.1           2,778    0.3
Chinese               32,039    6.8          56,260    5.8
Filipino              93,915   12.2         133,964   13.9
Japanese             217,307   28.3         239,618   24.8
Korean                 8,656    1.1          17,948    1.9
Vietnamese           -------   ----           3,459    0.4
Hawaiian */           71,375    9.3         115,962   12.0
Samoan               -------   ----          14,168    1.5
Guamanian            -------   ----           1,677    0.2
Asian Indian         -------   ----             604    0.1
Other                 18,410    2.4          42,602    4.4
                                                          

*/ Includes full and part-Hawaiians. See explanation of U.S. Census data.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1980 Census of Population; Race of the Population by States: 1980, Supplementary Report PC80-S1-3 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, July 1981), pp. 6-14.

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Update Survey by the Office of Economic Opportunity. The unemployment rate for both males and females for the six major islands was estimated at 11.6 percent, ccmpared to 6.5 percent for the State as a whole. More recently, U.S. Department of Labor correspondence with the State indicates that the present rate is probably higher than the 1975 level, while the overall unemployment rate in Hawaii has dropped to 5.9 percent. 51/

Data for 1975 on the distribution of men in the occupational structure of Hawaii show that native Hawaiians still lag behind other ethnic groups in the percentage of their population with professional/managerial positions. Only 17.8 percent of native Hawaiians are classified as "professional-technical, managerial," compared to 33.6 percent for Caucasians, 34.3 percent for Japanese, and 50.4 percent for Chinese. On the other hand, 53.6 percent of native Hawaiians have occupations classified as "blue collar," while 42 percent of Caucasians, 4 2.2 percent of Japanese, and 21.2 percent of Chinese have blue collar jobs. Filipinos and Portuguese fare even worse than native Hawaiians: 16 percent of Filipinos and 17.7 percent of Portuguese are classified as professional, while 55.4 percent of Filipinos and 58.1 percent of Portuguese have blue collar jobs. Over 2 2 percent of native Hawaiian men have jobs in the "menial" occupational category, a higher percentage than that of any of the other five ethnic groups studied. 52/

Summary

In ancient Hawaii, the inhabitants lived in a subsistence economy, farming and fishing for just enough to satisfy their needs. The coming of the white man changed this situation and a market economy grew up alongside the natives' subsistence one.

When trading declined and largescale agriculture took over, the economy changed again. The decline in the native population and the lack of interest on the part of the natives in toiling in the fields made the importation of immigrant laborers necessary. Many native Hawaiians continued to work as supervisors for the plantations, however.

In the early part of the twentieth century, native Hawaiians, and especially part-Hawaiians, had some advantage over other ethnic groups in the professions, particularly in the fields of law, politics, and teaching. This advantage disappeared by 1940, however. By 1950, full-Hawaiians were over-represented in the unskilled labor class. Data for 1975 show that only 17.8 percent of native Hawaiian men have professional/managerial positions, while 53.6 percent are classified as blue collar workers. According to 1970 U.S. Census information, the employment status of native Hawaiians is as follows:

  • 4.3 percent of native Hawaiian men and 5.2 percent of native Hawaiian women were unemployed, compared to State figures of 2.6 percent and 3.7 percent, respectively;
  • 76.4 percent of native Hawaiian males over the age of 16 were in the labor force, compared with the State figure of 81.5 percent;
  • 47.9 percent of native Hawaiian women over the age of 16 were in the labor force, compared with 49 percent for the State as a whole.

A 1975 Census Update Survey estimated that the unemployment rate for native Hawaiians was 11.6 percent, compared to 6.5 percent for the State of Hawaii as a whole.

-p50-

TABLE 9

POPULATION BY GEOGRAPHIC AREAS: 1850 TO 1896


                                                                                            
                                                           Oahu           
Year  Total    Hawaii  Maui    Lanai   Molokai   Total    Honolulu   Other   Kauai    Niihau
                                                                     Oahu
                                                                                            
1850  84,165   25,864  21,047   604      3,540    25,440     a/       ---     6,956      714
1853  73,138   24,450  17,574   600      3,607    19,126    11,455    7,162   6,991      790
1860  69,900   21,481  16,400   646      2,864    21,275    14,310    6,965   6,487      647
1866  62,959   19,808  14,035   394      2,290    19,799    13,521    6,278   6,299      325
1872  56,897   16,001  12,334   348      2,349    20,671    14,852    5,819   4,961      233
1878  57,985   17,034  12,109   214      2,581    20,236    14,114    6,122   5,634      177
1884  80,578   24,991  15,970      2,614          28,068    20,487    7,581        8,935
1890  89,990   26,754  17,357      2,826          31,194    22,907    8,287       11,859
1896 109,020   33,265  17,726   105      2,307    40,205    29,920   10,285  15,228      164
                                                                                            

a/ Not shown in the official reports, but later given as 14,484 (The New Era and Weekly Argus, Honolulu.)

Source: Schmitt, p. 70. (Changes were made in the table as it appeared in the draft report based on comments received from Robert C. Schmitt.)

TABLE 10

POPULATION BY ISLAND: 1900 to 1960

                                                                                          
Island            1900       1910        1920       1930      1940       1950       1960
                                                                                           
All Islands      154,001    191,874     255,881    368,300   422,770     499,794   632,773

Oahu a/           58,504     81,993     123,496    202,887   257,696     353,020   500,409                    
  Honolulu a/     39,306     52,183      81,820    137,582   179,358     248,034   294,194
  Rest of Oahu    19,198     29,810      41,676     65,305    78,338     104,986   206,215

Other Islands     95,497    109,881     132,385    165,413   165,074     146,774   132,363
  Hawaii          46,843     55,382      64,895     73,325    73,276      68,350    61,332
  Maui          } 25,416 {   28,623      36,080     48,756    46,919      40,103    35,717
  Lanai         }  ^^^   {      131         185      2,356     3,720       3,136     2,115
  Kahoolawe         ...           2           3          2         1        ...       ...      
  Molokai          2,504      1,791       1,784      5,032     5,340       5,280     5,023
  Kauai           20,562     23,744      29,247     35,806    35,636      29,683    27,922 
  Niihau             172        208         191        136       182         222       254

Percent of total

Oahu                36.0       42.7        48.3       55.1      61.0        70.6      79.1
  Honolulu          25.5       27.2        32.0       37.4      42.4        49.6      46.5
  Rest of Oahu      12.5       15.5        16.3       17.7      18.5        21.0      32.6
Other islands       62.0       57.3        51.7       44.9      39.0        29.4      20.9
                                                                                           

a/ Data for Island of Oahu and City of Honolulu include minor outlying islands legally part of the City: 32 in 1940 (all in Palmyra), 14 in 1950 (all on French Frigate Shoals), and 15 in 1960 (all on French Frigate Shoals). Excludes Midway, never part of the Territory or State of Hawaii but sometimes reported with Hawaii for census purposes.

Source: Schmitt, p. 116.

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TABLE 11

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION


                                                                             
                                                                 % of total
           Total            Native      % Native Hawaiian     Native Hawaiian
                           Hawaiian      of Island's pop.        population  

Hawaii     82,900           27,510           33.2                   15.7
Maui       55,300           12,555           22.7                    7.2
Oahu      696,600          123,000           17.7                   70.4
Kauai      35,500            7,206           20.3                    4.1
Molokai     6,660            3,932           57.3                    2.2
Lanai       2,957              587           19.8                    0.3
   Total  860,177          174,790                                   100
                                                                             

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Assistant Secretary for Policy, Evaluation and Research, Memorandum to Lloyd Aubry (March 30, 1982). (Data originally compiled by Hawaii Health Surveillance Program, according to comments from Robert C. Schmitt.)

TABLE 12

PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION OF SCHOOL AGE OR OLDER WHO WERE LITERATE, 1890-1930

                                              
       AGE SIX AND OVER     AGE TEN AND OVER   
                 1896     1910    1920    1930 
Hawaiian         84.0     95.3    97.0    96.6
Part-Hawaiian    91.2     98.6    99.2    99.3
Portuguese       27.8     74.6    81.1    90.3
Other Caucasian  85.7     96.5    99.2    99.7
Chinese          48.5     67.7    79.0    84.3
Japanese         53.6     65.0    79.2    87.3
Korean                    74.1    82.7    82.4
Filipino                  66.4    53.3    61.5
Puerto Rican              26.8    53.3    68.0 
                                              
  TOTAL
  POPULATION     63.9     73.2    81.1    84.9

Source: Lind, p. 88. (Data for year l890 omitted since, according to Robert C. Schmitt, they are not comparable to later years because the 1890 data did "not take account of literacy in Asian languages, thus understating the rates shown for Chinese and Japanese.")

TABLE 13

PERCENTAGE OF 16- AND 17-YEAR OLDS ATTENDING SCHOOL 1910-1950

                                                                
                       1910     1920      1930     1940     1950  
                                                                
Hawaiian               38.4     41.3      37.0     38.8    }78.1     
Part-Hawaiian          58.0     57.5      55.6     58.8    }^^^^
  Caucasian-Hawaiian   59.7     60.2      58.3
  Asiatic-Hawaiian     54.3     51.9      52.5
Caucasian              25.9     34.0      49.1     56.6     77.4
  Portuguese           15.5     25.8      35.6
  Other Caucasian      63.8     64.0      70.2
Chinese                57.3     69.1      76.7     88.9     94.1
Japanese               29.9     35.1      54.3     72.8     94.1
Filipino               21.7     17.6      24.2     50.2     81.8
Korean                 53.1     65.4      68.0
Puerto Rican            8.4      9.3      15.2 
                                                                
TOTAL POPULATION       35.9     40.1      51.4     67.1     85.8

Source: Lind, p. 91

-p72-

TABLE 14

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT - 1970 */


                                                                                            
                                      Hawaiian
                             State      **/      Japanese    Chinese     Filipino     White
                                                                                            
Total Enrolled, 3 to 34
  yrs. old                   235,765    24,671    65,590      16,922      30,524      88,110

Percent Enrolled, 3 to 34
  yrs. old                    52.4%     55.1%     60.3%       61.6%       54.5%       45.7%

  3 and 4 yrs. old            24.5      24.2      34.8        27.1        15.4        25.2
  5 and 6 yrs. old            87.4      86.4      90.8        85.6        85.7        86.9
  7 to 13 yrs. old            96.7      96.4      97.1        96.3        96.0        97.7
 14 to 17 yrs. old: Male      96.1      90.7      95.8        93.7        91.2        96.3
                    Female    93.5      91.6      95.8        95.0        93.2        92.5       
 15 to 24 yrs. old: Male      24.3      21.7      62.9        45.5        24.8        16.5
                    Female    28.4      20.5      68.2        43.9        23.5        17.9
 25 to 34 yrs. old             6.5       2.9      11.9         7.5         3.3         7.2

Percent in Private Schools

  Elementary (1 to 8 yrs.)    10.8      10.8       7.1        21.0         7.0        12.7
  High School (1 to 4 yrs.)   12.8      14.4       3.6        26.2         5.7        16.9

Median School yrs. Completed
  (25 yrs. and over)          12.3      12.0      12.3        12.4         8.7        12.7

Percent High School Graduates
  (25 yrs. and over)           NA       49.7      60.3        66.1        34.4         NA

Percent Completing 4 or more
  yrs. of college
 (25 yrs. and over)           14.0       4.2      10.8        18.0         4.9        21.5
                                                                                            

*/ Based on sample.

**/ In 1970 U.S. Census data, the "Hawaiian" category includes full- and part-Hawaiians.

Source: For Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese and Filipino data, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Subject Report's, Japanese, Chinese and Filipinos in the United States, PC(2)-1G, 1970, pp. 11, 70, 129 and 178. For statewide data, U.S. Bureau of the Census, General Social and Economic Characteristics, United States Summary, PC(1)-C1 U.S. Summary, 1970, pp. 490-494. For whites and some stateside data, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population: 1970, Vol. I, Characteristics of the Population, Part 13, Hawaii, pp. 13-32, 13-75, 13-76, 13-211, and 13-214.

-p73-

TABLE 15

OCCUPATION: 1866-1896


                                                                                           
            All Occupations    
                          Percent     Agri-                                                 Other
Sex and      Number a/     of pop.   cultural-    Laborers c/ Mechanics  Professional       occu-  
census year               over 15    alists b/                               workers d/    pations

Both sexes:
  1866           ---         ---       8,258         5,025      1,146             512           ---
  1872           ---         ---       9,670         4,772      5,115             582           ---
  1878        24,795        59.4       8,763         7,871      2,606                 5,555
  1884        39,541        68.1      10,968        12,351      3,919                12,303
  1890        41,073        61.8       5,377        25,466      2,802             638         6,790
  1896        55,294        70.2       7,570        34,438      2,265           1,224         9,797


Male:
  1890        38,930        83.6       5,280        23,863      2,690             483         6,614
  1896        51,705        91.0       7,435        32,027      2,265             942         9,036


Female:
  1890         2,143        10.8          97         1,603        112             155           176
  1896         3,589        16.3         135         2,411        ---             282           761
                                                                                            
   a/   May include workers under 15.

   b/   "Agriculturalists" to 1884; "framers" and "planters and ranchers" for 1890; and "farmers and
agriculturalists," "rice planters," "coffee planters," and "ranchers for 1896.

   c/   "Laborers" in 1866, 1890, and 1896; "plantations laborers" in 1872 and "contract laborers" in 
1878 and 1884. 

   d/ "Professionalists" in 1866; "clergymen," "teachers," "licensed physicians," and "lawyers" in
1872; "professional men and teachers" in 1890; and "doctors," "lawyers," and "other professions" in
1896.

Source: Schmitt, p 77.

TABLE 16

GAINFULLY EMPLOYED MALES CLASSIFIED AS PROFESSIONAL, 1896-1960

                            Number Employed                                      Per Cent of Total                     
                 1896     1910     1930    1950     1960    1896     1910     1930     1950      1960
 Hawaiian         132      126      242      93       */    1.4       1.6      4.1      3.6        */
 Part-Hawaiian     54       71      293     649       */    4.0       3.1      6.7      6.3        */
 Portuguese        30}              180}                     .7}      2.6}
                     }     444         }  4,232    5,589       }      3.1}             16.9      17.9
 Other Caucasian  164}            1,563}                    4.9}     17.2}          
 Chinese          300       65      259     876    1,633    1.8        .5      3.0     10.7      16.6
 Japanese          88      221    1,204   2,506    5,286     .5        .5      3.4      5.5      10.1 
 Filipino                           268     296      424                        .6      1.2       1.8
 Korean                              58     121       */                       2.7      8.6        */
 Puerto Rican                        20      15       */                       1.1       .9        */
 All others        13       23       32     138       */    2.2        .4      4.2      3.7        */

          TOTAL   781      950    4,119   8,829   14,025    1.5       1.1      3.4      7.3      10.2

/* Not separately available.

Source: Lind. p. 80

-p74-

TABLE 17

EMPLOYED MALE CIVILIANS BY LARGE ETHNIC GROUPS AND MAJOR OCCUPATIONS

1940, 1950 */, 1960

                                   All Races                        Percent of Total Employed      
                                              Per            Cauca-                    Japa-
                                     Number   Cent    Haw'n   sian  Chinese  Filipino   nese

Managers, Officials, and
  Proprietors, including      1940   12,612   10.6     5.8    20.0    16.3      1.4      12.9
  Farm                        1950   15,274   12.6     7.9    18.5    20.1      3.0      15.1
                              1960   16,850   12.3            19.4    16.6      2.7      13.7

Clerical, Sales and           1940   12,371   10.4     8.3    16.3    28.6      1.6      11.4
  Kindred Workers             1950   15,049   12.4     9.9    14.1    26.3      3.4      15.1
                              1960   17,149   12.5            13.3    21.3      4.8      14.8

Craftsmen, Foremen, and       1940   15,526   13.0    15.4    17.4    10.2      2.4      18.8
  Kindred Workers             1950   25,251   20.9    22.9    21.2    18.4      7.5      27.7
                              1960   32,312   23.6            19.2    20.7     14.3      30.2

Operatives and Kindred
  Workers                     1940   14,422   12.1    19.8    14.4    12.0      8.0      11.6
                              1950   19,350   16.0    20.1    12.7    11.3     19.9      15.0
                              1960   20,687   15.2            11.7     9.9     22.1      13.0

Services Workers, including
  Household                   1940    8,463    7.1     8.9     3.4     12.3      5.8       8.3
                              1950    9,276    7.1    10.0     6.7      7.8     11.2       5.3
                              1960    9,573    7.0             5.5      7.1     10.6       5.3

*/ The major occupational categories used in 195 are not strictly comparable with those used in 1940, despite an obvious attempt by the census to secure comparability. Corrections have been made for the military population in the 1940 census returns by eliminating "soldiers, sailors, and marines," most of whom were Caucasians.


Source: Lind, p. 82

-p75-

TABLE 18

EMPLOYMENT STATUS - HAWAII, 1970 */

                             State     Hawaiian   Japanese   Chinese    Filipino    White
                                           **/
Male, 16 years old & over    272,726    20,681     75,286     18,224      35,576     112,723

Labor Force                  222,221    15,797     60,026     13,870       27,084     96,899
  Percent of Total            81.5%      76.4%      79.7%      76.1%        76.1%      86.0%

Civilian labor force         173,361    15,303     59,242     13,603      25,632      54,526
 Employed                    168,940    14,651     58,388     13,315      24,912      52,772
 Unemployed                    4,421       652        854        288         720       1,754
   Percent of civilian
    labor force                 2.6%      4.3%        1.4%       2.1%        2.8%       3.2%

Not in labor force            50,505     4,884      15,260      4,020       8,492     15,824

Female, 16 years and over    249,292    22,398      83,780     18,349      24,057     92,382

Labor force                  122,048    10,730      47,898      9,946      11,497     38,204
  Percent of Total            49.0%      47.9%       57.2%       54.2%      47.8%       41.4%

Civilian labor force         121,123     10,711     47,852       9,935     11,497      37,419
  Employed                   116,616     10,150     46,838       9,761     10,948      35,411
  Unemployed                   4,507        561      1,014         174        549       2,008
    Percent of civilian
     labor force               3.7%        5.2%      2.1%        1.8%        4.8%       5.4%

Not in labor force           127,224     11,668     35,882       8,403    12,560      54,178

*/ Data based on 20 percent sample

**/ In 1970 U.S. Census data, the "Hawaiian" category includes full- and part-Hawaiians.

Source:U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population 1970, Subject Report P(2)-1G, Japanese, Chinese and Filipinos in the United States, for Hawaiian, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino statistics, pp. 13, 75, 133, and 179. For State of Hawaii statistics, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population 1970, PC(1)-C1, General Social and Economic Characteristics, U.S. Summary, pp. 500-501. For whites, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population, 1970 Characteristics of the Population, vol. I, Part 13, Hawaii, pp. 13-266 and 13-267.

-p76-

TABLE 19

NUMBER OF HAWAIIANS AND PART HAWAIIANS UNEMPLOYED IN THE STATE - 1975

                 Hawaiian              Part-Hawaiian
                Male   Female                Male      Female

Oahu             20      154                   2,338     2,006
Hawaii           24        0                     322       234
Kauai            10       10                      31        51
Maui              0        7                     137       178
Molakai/Lanai    26       11                     234       123
TOTAL            80      182                   3,062     5,592
TOTAL MALE &
FEMALE                262                           5,654       
GRAND TOTAL                   5,916                   
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE */       11.6%                  
STATE WIDE UNEMPLOYMENT 
  RATE **/                   6.5%

*/Unemployment rate = Number unemployed / No. in labor force

Number of Hawaiians/Part-Hawaiians in labor force (1973) = 51,058

Unemployment rate for Hawaiians/Part- Hawaiians (1975)= 5,916/51,058 = 11.6%


**/ From the 1975 State Data Book

Source: Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Molokai and Lanai: OEO 1975 Census Update Survey; Kauai: 1974-5 Kauai Socioeconomic Profile Survey, updated and weighted. Received from U.S. Department of Labor.

-p77-

TABLE 20

PERCENTAGE OF MALES RECEIVING INCOMES IN 1949, 1959, 1969 BY INCOME CLASSES

           Up to   $1,000-  $2,000-  $3,000  $4,000-  $5,000-    $7,000-  $10,000     Median
           $999     1,999    2,999    3,999   4,999    6,999      9,000    and Over   Income

All Races

  1949      16.6     22.3     27.1     17.6     6.9     5.3      2.1        1.8      $2,340
  1959      11.3     14.4     12.2     16.0    13.0    18.0      8.7        6.5       3,717
  1969 */    8.5     10.0      8.1      6.4     6.1    14.3     19.6       26.8       6,529

Caucasion

  1949       9.7     24.8     17.8     18.3    10.1    11.0      4.6        3.7       2,856
  1959       7.9     21.5     11.9     12.7    10.9    14.5      9.9       10.6       3,649
  1969 */    7.3     10.6     10.4      7.8     5.9    13.6     16.3       28.1       6,173

Chinese

  1949      17.6     14.9      20.2    22.9    11.9     7.5       3.4       3.5       2,964
  1959      10.8      7.0       6.9    10.2    13.7    26.1      15.4       9.8       5,096
  1969 */    8.6      7.4       4.8     4.5     4.1    10.5      19.2      33.5       8,000

Japanese        
 
  1949      17.5     17.3      29.6    21.1     6.8     3.7      1.4        1.5       2,427
  1959      12.5      8.4       8.9    15.4    15.8    24.2      9.7        5.0       5,302
  1969 */    7.4      8.0       4.9     4.2     4.3    11.1     22.8         31.0     7,839

Filipino

  1949      18.1     32.6      40.2     7.6     1.2      .5        .1         .1      1,995
  1959      14.5     11.6      22.0    28.0    11.7     9.5       2.3         .5      3,071
  1969 */    8.2     11.3       7.7     6.8    10.0     21.6     18.2       10.0      5,252

Hawaiian and
Part-Hawaiian

  1949      22.5     17.2      25.5    21.5     7.1      3.7      1.5         .       2,369
  1959       --       --        --       --      --      --       --          --           ---
  1969 **/   8.5      7.9       5.4     5.4     5.8     13.8      22.5      21.9      6,835

*<u/>/ Males, with income, age 14 and over; 1969 data not entirely comparable with previous U.S. Census data,

<u>**/ Males, wiht income, age 16 and over.

Source: 1949 and 1959 data from Lind, p. 100. 1969 data frorr U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1970 Census of the Population; Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos in ihe United States, Subject Report PC(2)-1G (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1973), pp. 15, 74 146 and 179; and 1970 Census of the Population; Characteristics of the Population, Vol I, Part 13, Hawaii (1973), p. 13-77.

-p78-

TABLE 21

NUMBER OF HAWAIIANS AND PART-HAWAIIANS BELOW POVERTY LEVEL IN THE STATE

                  Hawaiian             Part-Hawaiian
                   Male     Female               Male     Female
Oahu                716       838               12,618    14,697
Hawaii              287       364                3,751     3,466
Kauai               112        72                  414       612
Maui                 74       130                1,238     1,447
Molokai/Lanai        23        50                  291       283
Total             1,212     1,454               18,312    20,505
Total Male 
  and Female            2,666                       38,817
Grand Total                        41,843

<u>Source: 1975 OEO Census Update

TABLE 22

PERCENT OF NATIVE HAWAIIANS IN EACH WELFARE CATEGORY COMPARTED TO PERCENT OF NATIVE HAWAIIANS IN TOTAL POPULATION

                                Welfare Categories        
                                 General
             State      AFDC-     Assistance     Food
          Population     UP         ABD         Stamps  Medical

State

Total       964,691   54,819     9,713    41,577   20,269
Hawaiian    115,500   16,878     2,144     6,331    2,171
Percent        12.0     30.8      22.1      15.2     10.7

Oahu
Total       762,565   40,101    7,372     28,123   14,166
Hawaiian     80,172   12,302    1,363      3,797    1,116
Percent        10.5     30.7     18.5       13.5      7.9

Hawaii
Total        92,053    8,797    1,441      7,864    3,344
Hawaiian     17,274    2,778      451      1,453      594
Percent        18.8     31.6     31.3       18.5     17.8

Maui         
Total        70,991    3,825      553      3,153    1,551  
Hawaiian     12,350    1,273      220        805      279
Percent        17.4     33.3     39.8       25.5     18.0

Kauai        
Total        39,082    2,096      347      2,437    1,208
Hawaiian      5,704      525      110        276      182
Percent        14.6     25.0     31.7       11.3     15.1

Source: State population obtained from The State of Hawaii Data Book, 1982. Welfare data obtained from Department of Social Service* and Housing, October- December 1982.

TABLE 23

POPULATION AND ARRESTS AS A PERCENTAGE OF ETHNIC STOCK, STATE OF HAWAII, 1981

                            Population  1/               Arrests
                            Number    Percent     Number   Percent

Caucasian                  318,770      33.0      13,110      35.3
Black                       17,364       1.8       1,506       4.1
Indian                       2,655        .3          10       --
Chinese                     56,285       5.8         691       1.9
Japanese                   239,748      24,9       2,871       7.7
Filipino                   133,940      13.9       3,966      10.7
Samoan                      14,073       1.5       1,507       4.1
Korean                      17,962       1.9         512       1.4
Hawaiian/
  Part-Hawaiian            115,500      12.0       8,551      23.0
Other                       48,394       5.0       4,408      11.9
TOTAL                      964,691     100.0      37,132     100.0

Percentages may not total 100 due to rounding.

1/ Population figures from State of Hawaii, Department of Planning and Economic Development. By self-identification or race of mother. Data are not comparable to Health Surveillance Program tabulations used in previous years' reports

Source: State of Hawaii, Hawaii Criminal Justice Information Center, Crime in Hawaii 1981; A Review of Uniform Crime Reports (April 1981), p. 39

TABLE 24

POPULATION AND ARRESTS AS A PERCENTAGE OF ETHNIC STOCK, STATE OF HAWAII, 1981 (USING STATE OF HAWAII POPULATION FIGURES)

                           Population 1/         Arrests
Ethnicity               Number       % Dist.          %
Caucasion               244,832        26.3         35.3
Japanese                218,176        23.5          7.7
Hawaiian/
  Part Hawaiian         175,453        18.9         23.0
Filipino                104,547        11.2         10.7
Chinese                  47,275         5.1          1.9
Korean                   11,802         1.3          1.4
Black                    11,799         1.3          4.1
Samoan                   11,173         1.2          4.1

1/ Population figures from State of Hawaii Health Surveillance Program; provided to the Commission by the Hawaii Department of Social Services and Housing.

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TABLE 25

OFFENSE BY RACE OF ADULTS ARRESTED, STATE OF HAWAII, 1981 (PERCENT)

                            MAN-                     AGGRAVATED          LARCENY-  DRUG
RACE            MURDER   SLAUGHTER   RAPE   ROBBERY   ASSAULT   BURGLARY  THEFT   ABUSE   GAMBLING

Caucasian         31.4      37.5      34.7     31.7     29.8      37.5     39.2     48.0      8.9
Black              4.0       6.3      11.8      8.2      8.5       3.8     3.7       6.1      0.5
Indian             --        6.3       --       --       0.4       --      --        --       --
Chinese            --        --        --       1.6      0.7       1.9      4.1      1.6      5.6
Japanese           4.0      25.0       2.8      7.4      8.1       6.6      8.4      8.0     18.4
Filipino          13.7       --        4.9      3.7     15.1       8.8     11.3      9.3     47.0
Hawaiian/              
 Part Hawaiian    21.6       6.3      21.5     24.5     21.0      27.3     18.6     17.5      8.3
Korean             --        --        1.4      0.4      2.2       0.1      1.7      0.4      2.3
Samoan            15.7      12.5       6.9     10.5      3.7       3.6      4.1      1.5      1.1
Other              9.8       6.3      16.0     12.1     10.7      10.3      8.8      7.7      7.8
  Total */       100.0     100.0     100.0    100.0    100.0     100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0
Total No.           51        16       144      514      272       770    3,953    2,627      783

*/ Percentages may not add to 100, due to rounding.

Source: Crime in Hawaii 1981 pp.61-62

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TABLE

OFFENSE BY RACE OF JUVENILES ARRESTED, STATE OF HAWAII, 1981 (PERCENT)

                                    LARCENY-  MOTOR VEHI-   OTHER                  DRUG    RUN-
  RACE         MURDER   BURGLARY     THEFT    CLE THEFT    ASSAULT   VANDALISM    ABUSE    AWAYS

Caucasian        8.0       19.5       17.1     12.9        13.8        18.8      30.0      21.4
Black            1.2        0.7        1.4      0.8         1.1         0.8       0.5       1.3
Indian           --         --         --        --         --           --        --       --
Chinese          --         --         1.2      --          0.2         0.4       0.3       0.4
Japanese         2.5        2.6        6.8      3.8         3.6         5.4       6.5       2.0
Filipino         6.8        7.8       15.7      8.1         9.3        11.3       9.2       5.7
Hawaiian/
 Part Hawaiian  38.9       42.3       32.1     52.8        41.7        36.8      33.4       44.5
Korean          --          0.7        1.5      0.8         2.6         --        0.3        0.7
Samoan          24.7        6.9        6.1      4.9         7.5         --        1.0      3.1
Other           17.9       19.4       18.1     15.9        20.0         19.2      18.8       21.0
 Total */      100.0       100.0      100.0    100.0      100.0        100.0     100.0      100.0
Total No.        162         995      3,137     371         549          239       601      1,070

<>*/ Percentages may not toal 100, due to rounding.

Source: Crime in Hawaii 1981, p. 74

TABLE 27

CRUDE BIRTH AND DEATH RATES, 1848 TO 1965

(Place of occurrence basis. Not adjusted for
underregistration, thought to be extensive in
many of these years. Because of doubtful
accuracy, the data before 1910 should be used
with utmost caution.)

 Period      Birth Rate*/       Death Rate*/

1848-1859        21.3                         45.8 
1860-1869        27.1                         40.8
1870-1879        41.0                         51.4
1880-1869        23.6                         25.3
1890-1899 b/     ---                          26.4
1900-1909        16.6                         16.6
1910-1919        31.3                         16.3
1920-1929        39.5                         14.4
1930-1939        26.2                          9.6
1940-1949        26.6                          6.8
1950-1959        31.8                          6.1
1960-1965        37.3                          5.5

a/ Annual events per 1,000 population computed as average of annual rates for period. Population base excludes armed forces after 1897. Residence basis to 1950; de facto basis thereafter.

b/ City of Honolulu only. Source: Schmitt, p.164

TABLE 28

DEATHS UNDER ONE YEAR OF AGE PER THOUSAND BIRTHS, 1924-1980

                  1924   1929   1940   1950   1960   1963   1970   1980

All Races          119    91     50      24    22     21     19     10
Hawaiian           285   198    129      60    42     38     65     --
Part-Hawaiian       96   109     57      26    26     25     22     10
Portuguese         100    64}
                            }-   39      24    20     20     19     11
Other Caucasian     44    49)
Chinese             64    55     40      24     21    21     18      9
Japanese            88    57     34      18     22    17     14      7
Korean              70    51     36      19     29    16     35     10
Filipino           296   219     73      31     36    22     18     12
Puerto Rican       110    99     67      26     24    13     32      6

Source: For1924-1963: Lind, p. 106; for 1970 amd 1980, Hawaii State Department of Health, Annual Report Statistical Supplement, 1970 and 1980.

TABLE 29

RESIDENT INFANT DEATHS BY RACE OF MOTHER 1977-1981

                   BIRTHS    DEATHS     RATE */

All Races          87,463     922     10.5 +/- 0.7
Caucasian          26,664     236      8.9 +/- 1.1
Hawaiian              707       7      9.9 +/- 7.3
Part-Hawaiian      18,606     256     13.8 +/- 1.7
Chinese             3,285      23      7.0 +/- 0.9
Filipino           14,954     137      9.2 +/- 1.4
Japanese           12,688     112      8.8 +/- 1.6
Puerto Rican        1,066       8      7.5 +/- 5.2
Korean              1,775      20     11.3 +/- 4.9
Portuguese            735       6      8.2 +/- 5.5 

*/ Number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births +/- 95% confidence limits.

Source: , S Departnent of Health Annual Report Statistical Suplement 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981. Confidence Limites calculated by Department of Health Research and Statistics Office.

TABLE 30

CHARACTERISTICS OF BIRTHS BY RACE OF MOTHER HAWAII RESIDENTS 1980 */

                             Rate Per      Sex      Low    Illegit-
Race of            Births    1000 Pop.    Ratio    Birth    imate
Mother                          2/          3/    Weight%     4/

Total              18,129      19.5         1.1     7.1%    175.9
Caucasian           5,859      24.0         1.1     5.9%    133.6
Hawaiian              136      17.5         0.9     7.4%    276.1 
Part-Hawaiian       3,841      23.1         1.0     7.4%    363.2
Japanese            2,655      12.2         1.1    11.8%     67.8
Chinese               704      14.9         1.0     5.8%     62.5
Filipino            3,042      29.1         1.1     9.3%    153.2

1/ All data Department of Health Statistical Supplement 1980.

2/ Based on population totals from State of Hawaii Data Book 1981.

3/ Males divided by females.

4/ Number of illegitimate births per 1000 live births.

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TABLE 31

ESTIMATED LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH BY ETHNIC GROUP, 1910-1970

YEAR    CAUCASIAN    CHINESE     FILIPINO     HAWAIIAN     JAPANESE     OTHER     TOTAL

1910      54.83       54.17        n/a         32.58        49.38       15.62     43.96
1920      56.45       53.80       28.12        33.56        50.54       28.38     45.69
1930      61.90       60.07       46.14        41.87        60.07       32.58     53.95
1940      64.03       65.32       56.85        51.78        66.28       59.48     62.00
1950      69.21       69.74       69.05        62.45        72.58       68.29     69.53 
1960      72.80       74.12       71.53        64.60        75.68       92.19     72.42
1970      73.24       76.11       72.61        97.62        77.44       76.74     74.20

Source: C. B. Park, R.W. Gardner, and E.C. Nordyke, R&s Report. Research and Statistics Report (Honolulu: Hawaii State Department of Health, June 1979), p. 3. Comparable figures for 1980 are not yet available from the Department of Health.

TABLE 32

LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH: 1920 to 1980

 Cause of Death           Percent distribution           a/                    Rate per 100,000 population a/
                          1920   1930    1940    1950    1960   1970   1980    1920   1930   1940   1950   1960    1970    1980 

  All causes b/           100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0   1,797   1,043    724    583    568    549    504
Influenza and pneumonia 32.2 12.6 7.2 4.6 3.6 4.1 3.6  572 132 52 27 21 22 18
Tuberculosis (all forms)
Diarrhea and enteritis
Diseases of early infancy
Heart diseases
Accidents (all forms)
Nephritis and nephrosis
Cancer and other malignant
  neoplasm
Cerebral hemorrage
Deliveries and complications
  of pregnancy
Suicide
Beriberi
Congenital malformations
Diabetes mellitus

Template:Nhsc-v1-83 Template:Nhsc-v1-84 Template:Nhsc-v1-85 Template:Nhsc-v1-86 Template:Nhsc-v1-87 Template:Nhsc-v1-88 Template:Nhsc-v1-89 Template:Nhsc-v1-90

DEMOGRAPHICS

NOTES

1/ State of Hawaii, Office of the Governor, "Fact Sheet," April, 1981.

2/ As noted in the text, the Native Hawaiians Study Commission utilized data from a variety of sources. It was hoped, when the Commission began its work, that all 1980 Census data would be available to it before the statutory submission deadline for its Final Report. In fact, some U.S. 1980 Census data was made available by the Bureau of the Census via a special tabulation completed for the Commission (see "Housing" chapter). However, due to technical problems with the 1980 Census, the publication date for the more detailed information (by State and by ethnic group) was not available to the Commission before the printing deadline for the Commission's Final Report. However, in anticipation of this problem and as a result of comments received by the Commission on its Draft Report, the data that do appear in this Final Report are the most recent availabie--whether from State or Federal sources. A comparison of the historical trends in the text and the most recent data (most only 3 to 5 years old) available suggest that these trends could be expected to continue, even if 1980 Census data were available. As a summary, the following list presents the subject areas for which statistical data appear in this Final Report, and the latest year for which information was available to the Commission. With one exception, none of the data is dated before 1975, and two-thirds of the statistics are dated at least 1980. The areas where statistical data for native Hawaiians are presented are as follows:

Population 1980 Age/sex statistics 1980 Education 1977 --Educational workforce 1980 --U. of Hawaii enrollment 1982 Employment status 1975 Occupation status 1975 Income 1977 Poverty level 1975 Welfare 1982 Criminal justice 1981 Health --infant mortality rates 1980 --characteristics of births 1980 --life expectancy 1970 --leading causes of death 1980 --incidence of cancer 1973-80 --acute conditions 1980 --chronic conditions 1980 --substance abuse 1979 Interracial marriages 1980-81 Housing characterists 1980

3/ Robert C. Schinitt, Demographic Statistics of Hawaii 1778-1965 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1968). Robert C. Schmitt reviewed the Commission's Draft Report, made several comments on corrections (all of which were incorporated) and noted that: "Notwithstanding these errors, the demographic, statistical, and historical aspects of the study have been handled reasonably well, reflecting a satisfactory degree of competence and objectivity" (p. 3). Another comment received by the Commission disputes the relevance of the statistical section of the study. Congressman Cecil Heftel states:

Similarly the statistical compilations of the draft may have some uses but do not describe or define Hawaiians. To judge Hawaiians today in juxtaposition with their contemporaries may locate them, on
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some socio-economic scale, but does not answer the crucial question: How true are their lives to native Hawaiian culture and values?
It is not enough to look back a century and reach certain conclusions, not enouqh to probe the past with modern statistical tools, unless you also are able to evaluate the Hawaiian experience and ethics against a Hawaiian concept. What may appear undesirable in one culture can have a logical explanation in another. To do a total, meaningful summation of Hawaiians, it will be necessary to measure them against Hawaiian values (pp. 1-2).

4/ Schmitt, pp. 18-22

5/ Ibid., p. 16.

6/ Ibid., p. 68.

7/ Ibid., p. 114.

8/ Public Law 96-565, 96th Congress (94 STAT. 3321), Title III, Section 305, December 22, 1980.

9/ There was some confusion on definitions used in the Commission's Draft Report since these terms were not always used consistently (see comment by Herbert Jay (Nahaolelua) Almeida). An attempt has been made to correct that situation.

10/ Schmitt, p. 37.

11/ Adams, quoted in Schmitt, p. 37.

12/ Trene B. Taeuber, "Hawaii," Population Index 28 (April 1962):98.

13/ Schmitt, p. 39.

14/ Andrew w. Lind, Hawaii's People, 3rd ed. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1967), p, 7.

15/ Ibid., pp. 17-19.

16/ Neil Levy, "Native Hawaiian Land Rights," The California Law Review, Volume 63 (July 1975): 849.

17/ Ralph S. Kuykendall, The Hawaiian Kingdom, Volume 1, 1778-1854, Foundation and Transformation (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1968), pp. 88-89. [Hereinafter cited as "Kuykendall, Volume 1."]

18/ Ralph S. Kuykendall and A. Grove Day, Hawaii: A History, From Polynesian Kingdom to American Commonwealth (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1948), p.42.

19/ For example( see Taeuber, p. 98 (cited above); Kuykendall and Day, p. 43; Kuykendall, Volume I, pp. 89-90; Schmitt, p. 36; Adams, p. 7. This paragraph was revised as the result of a comment by Congressman Daniel Akaka, who states: "The claim that 'social disruption' was caused by Kamehameha I becoming the prime aqent for the sandalwood trade is made without substance (p. 19-20). Where is the evidence for such a claim? There is no citation to indicate the source for this conclusion. Without an identification of both the source and the justification for its conclusion, I find the statement implausible since it suggests that the Hawaiians are to blame for their own demise" (p. 3 ).

20/ Taeuber, 108.

21/ Romanzo Adams, Interacial Marriage in Hawaii: A Study of the Mutually Conditioned Processes of Acculturation and Amalgamation, reprinted from 1937 ed. (New York: AMS Press, 1969). pp. 31-32.

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22/ Lind, p. 45.

23/ Ibid., p. 47.

24/ Quote in comment received by the Commission from Haunani-Kay Trask, et al., p. 6.

25/ Adams, p. 55.

26/ Kuykendall, Volume I, p. 106.

27/ Ibid., p. 110.

28/ Lind, p. 88.

29/ Ibid., p. 91.

30/ See comment by Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, p. 6.

31/ Andrew N. White and Marilyn Landis, The Mental Health of Native Hawaiians, Report Compiled for Alu Like, Inc. (September 1982), Table 3.9, p. 78. Data in this table from Havaii Health Surveillance Program results.

32/ Comment by Violet Ku'ulei Ihara.

33/ White and Landis, Table 3.9, p. 78.

34/ Alu Like, Inc., "Information Presentation for the Native Hawaiian [sic] Study Commission" (January 9, 1982).

35/ Winona Rubin, Testimony Presented to the Joint Public Hearing of the [Hawaii] House and Senate Committees on Education (July 31, 1982, Honolulu), p. 1.

36/ Ibid., p. 2.

37/ Ibid., pp. 1-2. This paragraph added to Final Report as a result of comments received from Congressman Daniel Akaka, p. 4.

38/ Revised from Draft Report at suggestion of comments from Haunani- Kay Trask, et al, p. 6.

39/ Lind, p. 66.

40/ Ibid., p. 67.

41/ Ibid.

42/ Louis Agard, The Sandalwood Trees: Politics and Hope, p. 16. (Received by the Commission from John Agard.)

43/ Lind, p. 76.

44/ Ibid., p. 79.

45/ Ibid.

46/ Lawrence H. Fuchs, Hawaii Pono: A Social History (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1961), p. 69.

47/ Lind, p. 79.

48/ Adams, pp. 243-247.

49/ Lind, pp. 81-83.

50/ U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population: 1970; General Social and Economic Characteristics, PC(1)-C1 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972), pp. 500-501.

51/ Attachments to letter sent from Lloyd Aubry, Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Policy, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Department of Labor, to Carl A. Anderson, Commissioner, Native Hawaiians Study Commission (April 1982). Note: Hawaii Data Book, p. 255, gives State rate of 10.3 percent for 1976.

A comment received by the Commission from Louis Agard notes that this relatively low unemployment rate for

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the State of Hawaii may be misleading: "Low unemployment rates in Hawaii do not necessarily mean high job opportunities are available in Hawaii... While employment appears high because the unemployment rate is low at 6%, the fact is that a surplus of labor is evidenced by higher wages on the mainland U.S. than in Hawaii in nearly evt-r, instance" (p. 46).

52/ 1975 Office of Economic Opportunity, Special Sample; in University of Hawaii, Report to the 1982 Legislature in Response to H.R. 509, Requesting the University of Hawaii to Study the Underrepresentation of Ethnic Groups in the Student Population of the University System (November 1981), Table 23.

53/ Lind, p. 99.

54/ Comments received from Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, p. 7; Robert C. Schmitt, Hawaii State Statistician, p. i; and Hideto Kono, Hawaii Department of Planning and Economic Development, p. 1.

55/ Comments received from Haunan:-Trask, et al, p. 7.

56/ Hawaii Health Surveillance Program, Population Report Number 11 (Honolulu: Hawaii State Department of Health, 1979); cited in White and Landis, Table 3.14, p. 83.

57/ Comment received from Franklin Y. K. Sunn, Director, State of Hawaii Department of Social Services and Housing (DSSH). DSSH also updated the table on welfare for the Commission.

58/ The Commission received a comment from the Hawaii State Department of Social Services and Housing that states the following with regard to these findings: "The view expressed in this summary appears somewhat paradoxical, inasmuch as the low income status (perceived as 'dismal' in the summary) of some native Hawaiians could also have been the result of individual choice, i.e., for a 'back-to-the-land,' shun western materialistic cultures kind of approach. (This is an approach espoused by many Hawaiian activist organizations.) The question, then, is from whose perspective is this summary statement made?" (p. 2) . A similar comment was made by Louis Agard (p. 50): "Mostly it is important to remember that many if not the majority of native Hawaiians enjoy a more simple lifestyle and therefore are considered at the poverty level in Hawaii society. This is the lifestyle they have selected to enjoy. Rather than the accumulation of material things native Hawaiians are more interested in the justice of sharing. But native Hawaiians have been obliged to conform to other standards and must fend for themselves in the system."

59/ Comments received from Robert C. Schmitt, Hawaii State Statistician, p. 2; Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, p. 7; and Franklin Y. K. Sunn, Director, State of Hawaii Department of Social Services and Housing, pp. 2-3.

60/ Comments by Schmitt.

61/ Ibid.

62/ State of Hawaii, Hawaii Criminal Justice Information Center, Crime in Hawaii 1981; A Review of Uniform Crime Reports (April 1981), p. 39.

63/ If the Hawaii Health Surveillance Program data on population had been used, the exceptions, besides manslaughter and gambling, would include larceny-theft and drug abuse.

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64/ See connents submitted to the Commission. Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, states that figures on incarceration are "crucial since they reveal racism in sentencing and other judicial policies as well as the overall state of oppression of Hawaiians" (p. 7). Louis Aqard writes that: "[High arrest rates for native Americans] support the charges of oppression by the use of racism, and minority groups must conform to those very laws and social practices designed to maintain their subjugation" (p. 30).

65/ Mental health is not discussed in this section; it is extensively discussed below in the "Health and Social Services" chapter.

The entire section on Health in this chapter was substantially revised from the Commission's Draft Report, primarily as a result of extensive comments received from Thomas A. Burch, M.D., Chief, Research and Statistics Office, Hawaii State Department of Health. The Commission is grateful to Dr. Burch for the time and effort he expended in updating many of the statistics in this section. Dr. Burch also reviewed the revised draft before publication of the Final Report.

Readers should be aware that the Hawaii State Department of Health data used in this section is not comparable to data from the U.S. Census Bureau. The collection method for Hawaii State Department of Health data is as follows:

The race recorded on vital statistics records at the Department of Health--birth, death, and marriage certificates--is based entirely upon voluntary information and, hence, cannot be considered as indicating true genetic relationships.
The race of a child is determined from the race of the parents entered on the birth certificate in accordance with the following policies which are based upon the procedure used by the Bureau of the Census on those censuses conducted prior to 1970. If the race of both parents is the same, the child is coded as that race. If the race of both parents is not the same and either parent is designated Hawaiian or Part-Hawaiian, the child is coded Part-Hawaiian. If either parent is designated Negro or Black, the child is coded Negro. In all other mixtures, the child is coded according to the race of the father. Illegitimate births are coded according to the race of the mother.
The races coded on a marriage certificate are whatever race the bride and groom recorded when they obtained their marriaqe license. The race on a death certificate is whatever race the informant gave the funeral director who prepared the death certificate.
The race of an individual included in the department's household health survey is coded in accordance with the above criteria based on the race of the individual's parents as furnished by the respondent. Individuals whose parents are of different races are coded either Part-Hawaiian or Other Mixture depending upon the racial mix.
The race item on the 1970 and 1980 United States decennial census was based entirely upon self-identification as a single race so that it is no longer possible to get counts of racial mixtures from the census. The race items from the 1970 and 1980 census are notcomparable with the race designations of the Department of Health--or any other race statistics collected in Hawaii. (Communication received from Dr. Thomas A.
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Butch, Chief, Research and Statistics Office, State of Hawaii, Department of Health, dated January

13, 1983. Hereinafter referred to as "Burch, Hawaii State Department of Health.")

66/ Comment received from Robert C. Schmitt, p. 2. Also mentioned in comment received from Richard Kekuni Blaisdell, p. 1.

67/ The remainder of this paragraph based on information provided by Richard Kekuni Blaisdell, p. 2.

68/ Department of Health, State of Hawaii, Annual Report, Statistical Supplement, 1980, September 1981, p. 19.

69/ Ibid., p. 9.

70/ The information on infant death rates that appeared in the Commission's Draft Report was substantially revised as the result of comments received from the Hawaii Department of Health. This quotation is from Burch, Hawaii State Department of Health.

71/ Comments received from Richard Kekuni Blaisdell point out that in examininq cause of death over time the reader should be aware that the data will not be strictly comparable since "concepts of illness and diagnostic criteria for 'diseases' vary with time and recorder" (p. 3). The Hawaii Department of Health has produced a Study in which death certificates from 1910 to 1960 were re-coded using current classification of diseases to attempt to address this problem, and it is this data that is used in the Rele A. Look study discussed below.

72/ Information provided to the Commission by Dr. Burch, Hawaii State Department of Health. Comments from Richard Kekuni Blaisdell also suggested including such information.

73/ Mele A. Look, A Mortality Study of the Hawaiian People, R & S Report, Issue No. 38 (Honolulu: Hawaii State Department of Health, Research and Statistics Office, February 1982).

74/ The list presented here is taken from Look's study. Comments received from Richard Kekuni Blaisdell suggest the following reasons: "lower income level; inadequate health care; different cultural concepts of health and illness" (p. 3). See also, by Blaisdell, paper entitled, "Health Section of Native Hawaiians Study: Commission Report," written at tne direction of and funded by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. This paper reproduced in the comments section of the Appendix of this Report.

75/ This section contributed by Dr. Burch, Hawaii State Department of Health. Comments from Richard Kekuni Blaisdell also suggested including such information.

76/ Other data on the health status of native Hawaiians exist that have not been included in this report, but that confirm that the native Hawaiian population has special health problems. For example: data on the highest incidence of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease in Hawaiians/ Part-Hawaiians; data on the highest prevalence of end-staqe renal disease (kidney failure) in Hawaiians; data on congenital/inherited disorders, such as the highest incidence of club-foot among Hawaiians; data on the highest rates of teen-age pregancies among Hawaiian girls; data on elderly Hawaiians, such as published by Alu Like, Indicating that 75.9% of Hawaiians vs. 66.3% of non-Hawaiians over 65 years of age" stated they had major chronic illnesses; data on medical care, such as cited by Alu Like, that 15.7% of Hawaiians over 60 years had no health insurance vs. 9% of non—Hawaiians; data on the

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relative paucity of Hawaiian health professionals. (See Appendix, comment by Richard Kekuni Blaisdell and paper by Blaisdell on "Health Section of Native Hawaiians Study Commission Report" for complete references to these data and studies.)

77/ Hawaii State Department of Health, Annual Report, Statistical Supplement, 1980, p. 60.

78/ Information received in comment from Richard Kekuni Blaisdell, p. 3. Information he presented is from a study by Alu Like, Inc., entitled, Mortality and Morbidity of Native Hawaiians, 1977.

79/ Hawaii State Department of Health, Needs Assessment; Alcohol and Drug Abuse (Honolulu: Hawaii State Department of Health, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Branch, 1980), p. 2.

80/ Ibid., p. 1.

81/ Ibid.

82/ Ibid., p. 8.

83/ Ibid., p. 9.

84/ Ibid., p. 10.

85/ Ibid., p. 14.

86/ Ibid., p. 17.

87/ Ibid., pp. 18-19.

88/ Ibid., p. 23.

89/ Ibid., p. 26.

90/ Ibid., p. 29.

91/ Ibid., pp. 36 and 42. For mental health data, see chapter below entitled, "Health and Social Services."

92/ Adams, pp. 43-44.

93/ Ibid., p. 44.

94/ Ibid., p. 47.

95/ Lind, p. 109.

96/ Ibid., p. 62.

97/ Louis Agard, The Sandalwood Treest Politics and Hope, p. 50; Haunani-Kay Trask, et al, p. 8.

98/ Adams, p. 44.

99/ Louis Agard, p. 50.

100/ Ibid., p. 51.

101/ For versions of this episode see, for example: comment received from Louis Agard, p. 51; Kuykendall and Day, p. 221; Fuchs, pp. 189-190; and Gavan Daws, Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1968), pp. 317-327.

102/ Fuchs, p. 189.

103/ Ibid.

104/ Ibid., p. 190.

105/ William Adam Russ, Jr., The Hawaiian Republic 1894-1898 (Selinsgrove, Pa.,: Susquehanna University Press, 1961), p. 20.

106/ Ibid., p. 21.

107/ Ibid., p. 26.

108/ Daws, p. 281.

109/ Russ, The Hawaiian Republic, p. 33.

110/ Ibid., p. 34.

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111/ Ibid., p. 32.

112/ Ibid.

113/ Daws, p. 281.

114/ Puss, The Hawaiian Republic, p. 46.

115/ Ibid.

116/ Daws, p. 294. The above section on votinq requirements in the Republic of Hawaii was extensively revised in response to comments by Congressman Daniel Akaka (p. 4) and Haunani-Kay Trask, et al (p. 8).

117/ Fuchs, p. 161.

118/ Lind, p. 96.

119/ Comment by Herbert Jay (Nahaolelua) Almeida says that: "The report fails to recognize that ethnic bloc voting has had an impact on politics in Hawaii. The AJA (Americans of Japanese Ancestry) population, for instance, was a significant factor in the 1963 Gubernatorial race results (See To Catch a Wave)" [p. 2). Haunani-Kay Trask notes that to say that candidates for political office are not helped by appealing to ethnic groups is "a falsehood since elections are constantly characterized by ethnic appeals; in modern Hawaii these appeals have been to the growing Japanese electorate" (pp. 8-9).

120/ Fuchs, pp. 147-9.

121/ Ibid., p. 348.

122/ Ibid., p. 349.

123/ Ibid.

124/ Ibid., p. 350.

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